Adolescence: A foundation for future health

Centre for Adolescent Health, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 04/2012; 379(9826):1630-40. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60072-5
Source: PubMed


Adolescence is a life phase in which the opportunities for health are great and future patterns of adult health are established. Health in adolescence is the result of interactions between prenatal and early childhood development and the specific biological and social-role changes that accompany puberty, shaped by social determinants and risk and protective factors that affect the uptake of health-related behaviours. The shape of adolescence is rapidly changing-the age of onset of puberty is decreasing and the age at which mature social roles are achieved is rising. New understandings of the diverse and dynamic effects on adolescent health include insights into the effects of puberty and brain development, together with social media. A focus on adolescence is central to the success of many public health agendas, including the Millennium Development Goals aiming to reduce child and maternal mortality and HIV/AIDS, and the more recent emphases on mental health, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. Greater attention to adolescence is needed within each of these public health domains if global health targets are to be met. Strategies that place the adolescent years centre stage-rather than focusing only on specific health agendas-provide important opportunities to improve health, both in adolescence and later in life.

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Available from: Susan Sawyer,
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    • "Youth is more vulnerable to be affected by internal (Psychological) and external factors (Social) because they are in critical transitory phase of human development (Santrock, 2004). Adolescence is a profound and complex stage of life that influences future health outcomes, attitudes, and behaviours (Sawyer et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The overarching aim of this thematic short review is to highlight the paucity of mental health research available for marginalized youth living in Pakistan. To establish a research gap, seven most relevant documents available on current plight of Pakistani youth has been selected randomly that comprised of project reports, journal articles and narrative essays. The span of documents ranged from 2004 to 2014. For review, an unsorted literature matrix has been furnished with keeping in view some systematic steps in order. Findings of all documents further categorized into two main themes (Adversity & Demographic Bonus) and four subthemes (marginalization; street violence; radicalization; & psychological issues). On the one hand, it is anticipated from findings that Pakistani youth experiencing variety of adversities that may lead towards loss of subjective well-being. On the other hand, this youth entered in the arena of demographic bonus that can be fruitful for positive nation building, if current youth is channelized well. The scarcity of research particularly on ‘Pakistani marginalized youth’ is a big question mark for local and international research communities that direly demand to be addressed. Keywords: Marginalized Youth; Thematic Short Review; Subjective Well-Being; Pakistan
    Social Sciences International Postgraduate Seminar, University Science Malaysia USM - Pinang; 11/2015
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    • "At this developmental stage, ranging in age approximately from 18 to 25 years, young people today face the challenges of identity formation and educational and occupational preparation which Erikson (1950) described in his day as occurring in late adolescence. Young adulthood is a period of life now characterised by continuing education, financial dependence and identity exploration, with comparatively delayed commitment to marriage and parenthood (Arnett, 2007; Sawyer et al., 2012). Social relationships are highly salient to young adults' success in their developmental challenges, and hence this paper explores the adolescent precursors of young adults' satisfaction with their available social support. "
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of socially supportive relationships in assisting people to cope with stress and adverse events is well recognised, but the trajectories whereby individuals develop the capacity to attract those supports have been infrequently studied. Taking advantage of a substantial longitudinal data set, we aimed to explore the precursors during mid-adolescence, of satisfaction with social supports in young adulthood. Both personality factors (extraversion, neuroticism) and adolescent experiences of high-quality interpersonal relationships with parents and peers were hypothesised to predict subsequent satisfactory supports; we wished to compare the influence of these factors. Participants in a study of the school to work transition (N = 558) provided psychosocial information at 16–17 years of age and then again six years later at 23, using paper and online questionnaires and standardised measures. Personality and family climate variables both predicted adult social support, with family cohesiveness and neuroticism having the largest roles. The possible implications for mental health promotion are discussed.
    Journal of Adolescence 10/2015; 44:70. DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.07.004 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    • " it is comparatively normal to witness a divergence between the age at which an individual is legally and psychologically capable of living an autonomous adult ' s life and the individual or contextual conditions—like a particularly prolonged education , or the prices of housing and living—that may make this socially or subjectively unaffordable ( Sawyer et al . , 2012"
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    ABSTRACT: There are several reasons why adolescence is interesting. It is in this phase that an individual finds herself fully facing the external world: basically equipped with the kind of social cognition that s/he has acquired at home, at school and through the media during childhood, s/he has now to meet a host of other, diverse views of what " reasonable, " " appropriate, " or " expected " courses of thought and emotions are, in the wild with friends and peers, romantic or sexual partners, teachers and employers, and the society at large. Furthermore, she is also expected, both at home and in the external world, to have a wholly new degree of control over such courses. While the idea that the development of social cognition still progresses after infancy (and possibly throughout the life span) is clearly gaining consensus in the field, the literature building on it is still scarce. One of the reasons for this probably is that most tests used to study it focus on its basic component, namely theory of mind, and have been mostly devised for us with children; therefore, they are not suitable to deal with the hugely increasing complexity of social and mental life during adolescence and adulthood. Starting from a review of the literature available, we will argue that the development of social cognition should be viewed as a largely yet-to-be-understood mix of biological and cultural factors. While it is widely agreed upon that the very initial manifestations of social life in the newborn are largely driven by an innate engine with which all humans are equally endowed, it is also evident that each culture, and each individual within it, develops specific adult versions of social cognition.
    Frontiers in Psychology 09/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01011 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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