Factors mediating seasonal and influenza A (H1N1) vaccine acceptance among ethnically diverse populations in the urban south

Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.62). 04/2012; 30(28):4200-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.04.053
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We examined the acceptability of the influenza A (H1N1) and seasonal vaccinations immediately following government manufacture approval to gauge potential product uptake in minority communities. We studied correlates of vaccine acceptance including attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and influenza immunization experiences, and sought to identify communication approaches to increase influenza vaccine coverage in community settings.
Adults ≥18 years participated in a cross-sectional survey from September through December 2009. Venue-based sampling was used to recruit participants of racial and ethnic minorities.
The sample (N=503) included mostly lower income (81.9%, n=412) participants and African Americans (79.3%, n=399). Respondents expressed greater acceptability of the H1N1 vaccination compared to seasonal flu immunization (t=2.86, p=0.005) although H1N1 vaccine acceptability was moderately low (38%, n=191). Factors associated with acceptance of the H1N1 vaccine included positive attitudes about immunizations [OR=0.23, CI (0.16, 0.33)], community perceptions of H1N1 [OR=2.15, CI (1.57, 2.95)], and having had a flu shot in the past 5 years [OR=2.50, CI (1.52, 4.10). The factors associated with acceptance of the seasonal flu vaccine included positive attitudes about immunization [OR=0.43, CI (0.32, 0.59)], community perceptions of H1N1 [OR=1.53, CI (1.16, 2.01)], and having had the flu shot in the past 5 years [OR=3.53, CI (2.16, 5.78)]. Participants were most likely to be influenced to take a flu shot by physicians [OR=1.94, CI (1.31, 2.86)]. Persons who obtained influenza vaccinations indicated that Facebook (χ(2)=11.7, p=0.02) and Twitter (χ(2)=18.1, p=0.001) could be useful vaccine communication channels and that churches (χ(2)=21.5, p<0.001) and grocery stores (χ(2)=21.5, p<0.001) would be effective "flu shot stops" in their communities.
In this population, positive vaccine attitudes and community perceptions, along with previous flu vaccination, were associated with H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccine acceptance. Increased immunization coverage in this community may be achieved through physician communication to dispel vaccine conspiracy beliefs and discussion about vaccine protection via social media and in other community venues.

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Available from: Saad B Omer, Sep 25, 2015
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    • "Vaccine uptake was positively associated with many of the same factors as knowledge and attitudes, namely older age, social capital, worry, media exposure, and information-seeking behaviors, as well as perceived severity and susceptibility to infection [17,19,21,24-26,30,53-56]. Those who felt official authorities had openly provided the public with clear and honest information about pandemic influenza vaccination believed to be sufficiently informed and were more likely to get immunized [19,21,22,25,44,51,52,55,57]. "
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    • "Some of these characteristics of the state vaccine supply included the number of locations where vaccine was available , prioritization of the ACIP-recommended target groups, the type of providers to whom vaccine was directed, and the leadtime between vaccine allocation and availability in a state, which largely reflects differences in states' ordering processes. Because other factors affect uptake, as evidenced by state-to-state variation in seasonal influenza coverage and individual-level studies [15] [16] [17] [18], underlying population differences such as demographic characteristics , utilization of preventive health services, and healthcare infrastructure were also examined. It is relevant to mention that individual-level studies differ from those with a regional or ecological view. "
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