Does active smoking really influence the course of Crohn's disease? A retrospective observational study.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Active smoking has been associated with a higher risk of developing Crohn's disease (CD). However, its impact on clinical outcomes has been controversial among studies. AIMS: To evaluate the influence of active smoking on initial manifestations of CD, the development of disease-related complications, and therapeutic requirements. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with CD within a ten-year period (1994-2003) were identified. Clinical and therapeutic features until October 2008 or loss of follow-up were recorded. Smoking status was assessed at each major disease-related event (e.g. penetrating and stricturing complications, perianal disease, intestinal resection, introduction of immunomodulators or biological agents). RESULTS: A total of 259 patients were included in the study with a median follow-up period of 91months. At diagnosis, 50.5% were active smokers and only 12% of them quit smoking during follow-up, mostly after a major disease-related event occurred. Smoking at diagnosis was not associated with a particular CD presentation. Active smoking did not influence the development of strictures, intraabdominal and perianal penetrating complications, or increased resectional surgery, biological therapy or immunomodulators requirements. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who develop CD while smoking seem to have a similar disease course to those who never smoked.
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ABSTRACT: The family history of patients identified during incidence studies in Leicestershire were investigated and the prevalence and comparative risks calculated; 1254 patients aged 15 to 80 years were sent a questionnaire about their family history. All cases with a positive family history were reviewed and confirmed cases included in the study. In Europeans the standardised prevalence of Crohn's disease was 75.8/10(5) and that of ulcerative colitis 90.8/10(5). The prevalence of Crohn's disease among South Asians was 33.2/10(5) and that of ulcerative colitis 135/10(5). The prevalence of Crohn's disease in Europeans was significantly greater than that in Hindus (chi 2 = 16, p < 0.001), while the prevalence of ulcerative colitis was significantly lower in Europeans than Hindus (chi 2 = 27, p < 0.001) and Sikhs (chi 2 = 4.4, p < 0.05). The comparative risk of developing ulcerative colitis in first degree relatives of Europeans patients with ulcerative colitis was increased by approximately 15, but the risk of Crohn's disease was not increased. The comparative risk of developing Crohn's disease among first degree relatives of patients with Crohn's disease was increased by up to 35, the comparative risk of ulcerative colitis was approximately 3. The risk among relatives of South Asian patients with Crohn's disease was not increased, but the risk of ulcerative colitis to relatives of patients with ulcerative colitis was. This study supports the view that Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis arise in people with a genetic predisposition and exposed to some, as yet unknown, environmental factor.Gut 12/1993; 34(11):1547-51. · 10.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Smoking may be a risk factor for surgical recurrence of Crohn's disease. However, other variables associated with recurrence could be confounding factors for smoking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of smoking as an independent predictor of clinical, surgical, and endoscopic recurrence. In a series of 182 patients who underwent surgery for Crohn's disease, a multivariate analysis was performed that included all of the significant variables associated with recurrence: sex, age at diagnosis, time between onset of symptoms and surgery, site of disease, indication for surgery, extent of disease, extraintestinal manifestation, and smoking habit. Independent predictors of clinical recurrence by the Cox proportional hazard model were smoking (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.8), extraintestinal manifestations (hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.0-2.5), and extent of disease (hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.0-2.4). Smoking was the only significant predictor of surgical recurrence (hazard ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3). For endoscopic recurrence, logistic regression showed that smoking (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.8) and extent of disease (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.0-6.7) were predictive factors of recurrence. Smoking is an independent risk factor for clinical, surgical, and endoscopic recurrence in Crohn's disease.Gastroenterology 04/1994; 106(3):643-8. · 12.82 Impact Factor