The mammalian microRNA response to bacterial infections
ABSTRACT MicroRNAs are small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate
eukaryotic gene expression. In addition to their involvement
in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes,
including viral infections, microRNAs are increasingly
implicated in the eukaryotic response to bacterial pathogens.
Recent studies have characterized changes in host microRNA
expression following infection with exclusively extracellular
(Helicobacter pylori) or intracellular (Salmonella enterica) Gramnegative
bacteria, as well as in the response to Gram-positive
(Listeria monocytogenes) and other pathogens (Mycobacterium
and Francisella species). In this review, we discuss the emerging
roles of microRNAs in mammalian host signaling and defense
against bacterial pathogens.