The kaiser permanente experience with ultrasound-guided percutaneous endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.
ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine the effect of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous access for percutaneous endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (PEVAR) on conversion to open repair by femoral cutdown. We also sought to identify other risk factors associated with failure of percutaneous access and conversion to femoral cutdowns.
This is a single-center, retrospective review of 101 patients who underwent PEVAR between January 1, 2005 and July 31, 2009 (56 months). Risk factors that were evaluated for unsuccessful PEVAR included gender, age (≤65 and ≥66 years), US-guided percutaneous access, mechanical failure, abdominal aortic aneurysm size, and the following comorbidities: diabetes, hypertension, vessel calcification, and obesity (body mass index: ≥30 kg/m(2)).
There were 10 (9.9%) conversions from percutaneous to femoral cutdown, yielding a success rate of 90.1% for a total percutaneous approach. Each converted patient had one groin converted, resulting in a cutdown rate per groin of 10/202 (5%). There were no 30-day mortalities. Univariate analysis showed that hypertension (P = 0.261), age ≥66 years (P = 0.741), current smoking history (P = 0.649), past smoking history (P = .093), diabetes (P = 0.908), vessel calcification (P = 0.8281), and body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) (P = 0.052) did not significantly predict conversion to endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). Mechanical failure significantly predicted conversion to cutdown EVAR (P = 0.0002), whereas US-guided percutaneous access influenced successful PEVAR (P = 0.030). Multivariate analysis showed that mechanical failure significantly predicted conversion to cutdown EVAR (P = 0.003) and US-guided percutaneous access influenced successful PEVAR (P = 0.040) after adjusting for smoking history and obesity.
PEVAR is a viable option for aortic aneurysm repair that may be improved with US-guided percutaneous access by reducing the rate of femoral cutdowns.
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ABSTRACT: To determine predictors of percutaneous (PEVAR) access failure requiring conversion to an open approach (OEVAR) during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). A single-center retrospective review of all EVAR patients from January 2009 through June 2011 with multivariate analysis of clinical and anatomic variables that could impact access outcome was conducted. Target vessel calcification was categorized as mild, moderate, or severe based on circumferential calcium arc (<⅓, ⅓ to ½, and >½ respectively), dyslipidemia (defined as low-density lipoprotein >130 mg/dL or receiving lipid lowering medication), and obesity (defined as body mass index [BMI] >30). We investigated 400 access sites for 200 patients who underwent EVAR. The study cohort's characteristics included an average age of 72.8 ± 9.0 years, vessel size of 9.6 ± 1.8 mm, sheath size of 17.1 ± 3.0 Fr, BMI of 27.6 ± 5.3, and estimated glomular filtration rate of 68.5 ± 24.2 mL/min. Comorbidities included dyslipidemia in 129 patients (64.5%) and diabetes in 54 patients (27%). There were 132 OEVAR (66 patients), two mixed OEVAR with contralateral PEVAR (one patient), and 266 (133 patients) PEVAR approaches. Use of PEVAR increased over time (45.5% , 77.8% , and up to 88.5% ; P = .001) while conversions decreased (24.3% , 8.7% , and 4.3% ; P = .001]. More OEVAR patients (35.8%) stayed longer than 3 days compared with 21.1% for PEVAR (P = .028). For the 266 PEVAR approaches, 32 access sites (12.0%) had to be converted. Severely calcified arteries were most predictive of conversion (odds ratio [OR], 36.4; P < .001). Year of procedure (2010; OR, 0.17; P = .001; 2011, OR, 0.20; P = .049), female gender (OR, 3.1; P = .017), moderately calcified arteries (OR, 2.5; P = .085), and age (OR, 2.3 [per decade]; P = .002) were all also significant. Vessel size, sheath size, and BMI were found to be non-significant predictors of conversion. PEVAR was found to be safe, reliable, and feasible. Several factors, including learning curve, vessel calcification, age, and female gender predicted conversion of PEVAR to OEVAR.Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 06/2013; · 3.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The first multicenter randomized controlled trial was designed and conducted to assess the safety and effectiveness of totally percutaneous endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (PEVAR) with use of a 21F endovascular stent graft system and either an 8F or 10F suture-mediated closure system (the PEVAR trial, NCT01070069). A noninferiority trial design was chosen to compare percutaneous access with standard open femoral exposure. Between 2010 and 2012, 20 U.S. institutions participated in a prospective, Food and Drug Administration-approved randomized trial to evaluate percutaneous femoral artery access and closure by a "preclose" technique in conjunction with endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. A total of 151 patients were allocated by a 2:1 design to percutaneous access/closure (n = 101) or open femoral exposure (n = 50 [FE]). PEVAR procedures were performed with either the 8F Perclose ProGlide (n = 50 [PG]) or the 10F Prostar XL (n = 51 [PS]) closure devices. All endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair procedures were performed with the Endologix 21F profile (outer diameter) sheath-based system. Patients were screened by computed tomography with three-dimensional reconstruction and independent physician review for anatomic suitability and adequate femoral artery anatomy for percutaneous access. The primary trial end point (treatment success) was defined as procedural technical success and absence of major adverse events and vascular complications at 30 days. An independent access closure substudy evaluated major access-related complications. Clinical utility and procedural outcomes, ankle-brachial index, blood laboratory analyses, and quality of life were also evaluated with continuing follow-up to 6 months. Baseline characteristics were similar among groups. Procedural technical success was 94% (PG), 88% (PS), and 98% (FE). One-month primary treatment success was 88% (PG), 78% (PS), and 78% (FE), demonstrating noninferiority vs FE for PG (P = .004) but not for PS (P = .102). Failure rates in the access closure substudy analyses demonstrated noninferiority of PG (6%; P = .005), but not of PS (12%; P = .100), vs FE (10%). Compared with FE, PG and PS yielded significantly shorter times to hemostasis and procedure completion and favorable trends in blood loss, groin pain, and overall quality of life. Initial noninferiority test results persist to 6 months, and no aneurysm rupture, conversion to open repair, device migration, or stent graft occlusion occurred. Among trained operators, PEVAR with an adjunctive preclose technique using the ProGlide closure device is safe and effective, with minimal access-related complications, and it is noninferior to standard open femoral exposure. Training, experience, and careful application of the preclose technique are of paramount importance in ensuring successful, sustainable outcomes.Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 01/2014; · 3.52 Impact Factor