Complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium intracellulare strain ATCC 13950(T).
ABSTRACT Here we report the first complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium intracellulare ATCC 13950(T), a Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) strain. This genome sequence will serve as a valuable reference for understanding the epidemiologic, biological, and pathogenic aspects of the disparity between MAC members.
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Article: The Mycobacterium avium complex.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease emerged early in the epidemic of AIDS as one of the common opportunistic infections afflicting human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. However, only over the past few years has a consensus developed about its significance to the morbidity and mortality of AIDS. M. avium was well known to mycobacteriologists decades before AIDS, and the MAC was known to cause disease, albeit uncommon, in humans and animals. The early interest in the MAC provided a basis for an explosion of studies over the past 10 years largely in response to the role of the MAC in AIDS opportunistic infection. Molecular techniques have been applied to the epidemiology of MAC disease as well as to a better understanding of the genetics of antimicrobial resistance. The interaction of the MAC with the immune system is complex, and putative MAC virulence factors appear to have a direct effect on the components of cellular immunity, including the regulation of cytokine expression and function. There now is compelling evidence that disseminated MAC disease in humans contributes to both a decrease in the quality of life and survival. Disseminated disease most commonly develops late in the course of AIDS as the CD4 cells are depleted below a critical threshold, but new therapies for prophylaxis and treatment offer considerable promise. These new therapeutic modalities are likely to be useful in the treatment of other forms of MAC disease in patients without AIDS. The laboratory diagnosis of MAC disease has focused on the detection of mycobacteria in the blood and tissues, and although the existing methods are largely adequate, there is need for improvement. Indeed, the successful treatment of MAC disease clearly will require an early and rapid detection of the MAC in clinical specimens long before the establishment of the characteristic overwhelming infection of bone marrow, liver, spleen, and other tissue. Also, a standard method of susceptibility testing is of increasing interest and importance as new effective antimicrobial agents are identified and evaluated. Antimicrobial resistance has already emerged as an important problem, and methods for circumventing resistance that use combination therapies are now being studied.Clinical Microbiology Reviews 08/1993; 6(3):266-310. · 17.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The past several years have witnessed an upsurge of genomic data pertaining to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Despite clear advances, problems with the detection of MAC persist, spanning the tests that can be used, samples required for their validation, and the use of appropriate nomenclature. Additionally, the amount of genomic variability documented to date greatly outstrips the functional understanding of epidemiologically different subsets of the organism. In this review, we discuss how postgenomic insights into the MAC have helped to clarify the relationships between MAC organisms, highlighting the distinction between environmental and pathogenic subsets of M. avium. We discuss the availability of various genetic targets for accurate classification of organisms and how these results provide a framework for future studies of MAC variability. The results of postgenomic M. avium study provide optimism that a functional understanding of these organisms will soon emerge, with genomically defined subsets that are epidemiologically distinct and possess different survival mechanisms for their various niches. Although the status quo has largely been to study different M. avium subsets in isolation, it is expected that attention to the similarities and differences between M. avium organisms will provide greater insight into their fundamental differences, including their propensity to cause disease.Clinical Microbiology Reviews 05/2007; 20(2):205-29. · 17.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As part of an epidemiologic study of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in San Francisco, water, food and soil samples were collected from the home environment of 290 persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and cultured for mycobacteria. Isolates recovered from the environment were compared with isolates cultured from study patients. Although mycobacteria were recovered from numerous environmental samples, isolates reactive with MAC-specific DNA probes were recovered from only four of 528 (0.76%) water samples and one of 397 (0.25%) food samples. The species M. avium was recovered from one water (0.19%) and one food sample. In contrast, MAC was recovered from 55% and M. avium from 27% of soil samples taken from potted plants in patients' home. Speciation of 76 MAC isolates from study patients showed all isolates belonged to the species M. avium. With use of serotype and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis, some of the soil isolates were found to be similar to isolates recovered from study patients. The results of this study suggest that soil, rather than water, may be a significant reservoir of organisms causing MAC infection in San Francisco.Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 07/1995; 9(2):176-82.
Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium intracellulare Strain
Byoung-Jun Kim,aBeom-Soon Choi,bJong-Sung Lim,bIk-Young Choi,bJe-Hee Lee,cJongsik Chun,c,dYoon-Hoh Kook,a
and Bum-Joon Kima
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Liver Research Institute, Cancer Research Institute and SNUMRC, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul,
Republic of Koreaa; National Instrumentation Center for Environmental Management, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Koreab; Chunlab, Inc., Seoul National
University, Seoul, Republic of Koreac; and School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Koread
Here we report the first complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium intracellulare ATCC 13950T, a Mycobacterium avium
(MAC) are the nontuberculous mycobacteria most frequently iso-
lated in clinical settings (5–7). Traditionally, the MAC includes two
species, M. avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare (1, 3, 6). There
epidemiologic, biological, and pathogenic aspects. Currently, of the
biense (AFVW00000000) (2), closely related to M. avium, are avail-
able. However, the complete genome sequence of M. intracellulare
has not yet been determined. To better understand the pathogenic
mechanism of M. intracellulare, we report the complete, annotated
genome sequence of M. intracellulare ATCC 13950Tin the present
The M. intracellulare genome was sequenced by a standard shot-
gun strategy using GS FLX pyrosequencing technology. Sequencing
analysis was performed at the National Instrumentation Center for
Environmental Management (Genome Analysis Unit) at Seoul Na-
tional University. A total of 921,179 reads were generated, with an
average read length of 400, yielding a total sequence of 368,366,484
bp. This represents 68? coverage of the estimated 5.4-Mb genome.
genome sequences of reference strain using the BLASTZ program
(http://www.psc.edu/general/software/packages/blastz/). All of the
remaining gaps between contigs were completely filled by ?50-fold
Solexa reads and PCR amplifications. Genome annotation was per-
formed using the NCBI Prokaryotic Genomes Automatic Annota-
Our data on the M. intracellulare genome show it to have a
circular DNA of 5,402,402 bp, which is larger than the genome of
M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (4.8 Mb) and contains more
protein coding genes (5,145 versus 4,400) and more tRNA genes
a G?C content of 68.10%, and no plasmid was found. M. intra-
cellulare is known to form a close cluster with M. avium in a phy-
logenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Our
the NCBI microbial sequence database also supported the close
relationships of M. intracellulare with M avium subsp. avium 104
and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The genome sequence re-
epidemiologic, biological, and pathogenic aspects of the disparity
between MAC members.
Nucleotide sequence accession number. The whole-genome
sequence of M. intracellulare ATCC 13950Thas been deposited in
the GenBank database under accession number CP003322.
This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea
grant funded by the Korean Government Ministry of Education, Science
and Technology (2010-0014269).
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Received 22 February 2012 Accepted 2 March 2012
Address correspondence to Bum-Joon Kim, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
jb.asm.org0021-9193/12/$12.00Journal of Bacteriologyp. 2750