Supplementation with cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside protects against hypercholesterolemia-mediated endothelial dysfunction and attenuates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.
ABSTRACT In this study, we investigated the protective effects of the anthocyanin cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (C3G) on hypercholesterolemia-induced endothelial dysfunction in apoE-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. In the prevention study, twenty 8-wk-old male apoE(-/-) mice (n = 10/group) were fed a high-fat, cholesterol-rich diet (HCD) or the HCD supplemented with C3G (2 g/kg diet) for 8 wk. The endothelium-dependent relaxation response to acetylcholine in the aortas of the C3G-fed mice was greater compared with those fed the HCD (P < 0.05). The atherosclerotic plaque area in the aortic sinus of mice fed the C3G diet was lowered by 54% compared with those fed the HCD (P < 0.01). Mice fed C3G had greater expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) and lower cholesterol, mainly 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC), concentrations than those fed the HCD. Superoxide production and lipid hydroperoxides in aorta were lower in mice fed C3G compared with those fed the HCD. The phosphorylation levels at Ser1177 of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and the production of cyclic GMP (cGMP) in aorta were greater in C3G-fed mice than in HCD-fed mice. In the therapy study, apoE(-/-) mice were fed the HCD for 8 wk and then continued to receive the HCD or were switched to the HCD supplemented with C3G (2 g/kg diet) for another 8 wk. The established endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis were reversed, accompanied by greater ABCG1 expression in aorta, lower cholesterol and 7-KC concentrations, and greater generation of cGMP in mice fed C3G compared with those fed the HCD. Taken together, our results show that the anthocyanin C3G prevents or reverses hypercholesterolemia-induced endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting cholesterol and 7-oxysterol accumulation in the aorta and the subsequent decrease in superoxide production, thereby preserving eNOS activity and NO bioavailability.
- Circulation Research 09/2012; 111(8):948-50. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Yoghurt with 9% (v/v) of plum juice concentrate (PJC) was stored for 24 days in darkness at 6 °C. Titratable acidity and pH were similar in all samples during storage. The firmness was in the range of 1.7–2.3 N and correlated with total solids of the mixes (R2 = 0.982). The sample with PJC and 5.33% (w/v) nonfat dry milk had the highest firmness and the weakest creaminess. The colour in PJC yoghurt was stable during the first seven days of storage. In the ranking test for acceptability, there were no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) between the yoghurts.International Journal of Dairy Technology 09/2013; · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diets supplemented with fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 PUFA, have been shown to modify several key risk factors for CVD. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of FO supplementation on mitochondrial dynamic protein expression in the endothelium and on endothelial cell function. Male apoE-deficient (apoE- / -) mice (8 weeks old, n 12 per group) were fed a high-fat diet containing 45 % fat (HFD group) or a HFD with partial replacement of lard with 10 % (w/w) FO (FO group) (total EPA and DHA content 64·1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. ApoE- / - mice in the FO group had a greater endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation response to acetylcholine (Ach) than those in the HFD group. The atherosclerotic lesion volume in the aortic sinus of mice in the FO group was 54 % lower than that in the HFD group (P< 0·01). In addition, the aortas isolated from mice in the FO group had higher expression levels of Mfn2 and Opa1 but lower expression levels of Fis1 than those from the HFD group. Compared with mice fed the HFD, those fed the FO diet showed significantly lower levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activity (each P< 0·05). Furthermore, FO-fed mice displayed increased NO release and availability and enhanced endothelial NO synthase activity compared with HFD-fed mice. Taken together, these results reveal a novel mechanism by which FO protects against endothelial cell dysfunction, which may result in improved mitochondrial dynamics.The British journal of nutrition 04/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor