In this study, we investigated the protective effects of the anthocyanin cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (C3G) on hypercholesterolemia-induced endothelial dysfunction in apoE-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. In the prevention study, twenty 8-wk-old male apoE(-/-) mice (n = 10/group) were fed a high-fat, cholesterol-rich diet (HCD) or the HCD supplemented with C3G (2 g/kg diet) for 8 wk. The endothelium-dependent relaxation response to acetylcholine in the aortas of the C3G-fed mice was greater compared with those fed the HCD (P < 0.05). The atherosclerotic plaque area in the aortic sinus of mice fed the C3G diet was lowered by 54% compared with those fed the HCD (P < 0.01). Mice fed C3G had greater expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) and lower cholesterol, mainly 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC), concentrations than those fed the HCD. Superoxide production and lipid hydroperoxides in aorta were lower in mice fed C3G compared with those fed the HCD. The phosphorylation levels at Ser1177 of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and the production of cyclic GMP (cGMP) in aorta were greater in C3G-fed mice than in HCD-fed mice. In the therapy study, apoE(-/-) mice were fed the HCD for 8 wk and then continued to receive the HCD or were switched to the HCD supplemented with C3G (2 g/kg diet) for another 8 wk. The established endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis were reversed, accompanied by greater ABCG1 expression in aorta, lower cholesterol and 7-KC concentrations, and greater generation of cGMP in mice fed C3G compared with those fed the HCD. Taken together, our results show that the anthocyanin C3G prevents or reverses hypercholesterolemia-induced endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting cholesterol and 7-oxysterol accumulation in the aorta and the subsequent decrease in superoxide production, thereby preserving eNOS activity and NO bioavailability.
"It is generally considered that these protective activities are related to the antioxidant properties of ACNs which, in turn, are determined by the number and position of hydroxyl groups as substituents and the extent of glycosylation –. Growing experimental data have illustrated that ACNs exhibit favorable antiatherosclerotic effects against endothelial dysfunction by counteracting oxidative stress , . Our previous work also demonstrated that among naturally occurring ACNs, delphinidin-3-glucoside (Dp) (Fig. 1), a major ACN present in pigmented fruits and vegetables including pomegranates, berries, dark grapes, egg plant, tomatos, carrots and red onion, possesses potent activity to scavenge free radicals to inhibit endothelial oxidative injury –. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Delphinidin-3-glucoside (Dp) is a member of a family of bioactive compounds known as anthocyanins that occur naturally in pigmented plants and are known to ameliorate oxidative stress. Previous studies have showed that Dp decreased oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells, however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that pretreatment with Dp significantly suppressed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Also, Dp pretreatment attenuated oxLDL-induced mitochondrial dysfunction via decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anion generation, thereby repressing mitochondrial membrane potential and closing mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo data showed that Dp was transported into endothelial cells in a temperature, concentration, and time-dependent manner via the sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1). Suppression of SGLT1 by its substrate glucose, its inhibitor phlorizin or SGLT1 siRNA blocked Dp transportation. Repression of SGLT1 significantly inhibited Dp function of ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction induced by pro-apoptotic factors (Apoptosis-inducing factor, Cytochrome c, Caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio). Taken together, our data indicate that Dp protects VECs via the SGLT1-ROS-mitochodria pathway. This new insight may help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the vascular protection afforded by Dp, and anthocyanins in general, in the context of prevention of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.
PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e68617. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0068617 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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