Meat Intake Is Not Associated with Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in a Large Prospective Cohort of US Men and Women

National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD, USA.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 04/2012; 142(6):1074-80. DOI: 10.3945/jn.112.158113
Source: PubMed


Meat intake has been inconsistently associated with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), a heterogeneous group of malignancies of the lymphoid tissue etiologically linked to immunomodulatory factors. In a large U.S. cohort, we prospectively investigated several biologically plausible mechanisms related to meat intake, including meat-cooking and meat-processing compounds, in relation to NHL risk by histologic subtype. At baseline (1995-1996), participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study completed a diet and lifestyle questionnaire (n = 492,186), and a subcohort (n = 302,162) also completed a questionnaire on meat-cooking methods and doneness levels. Over a mean of 9 y of follow-up, we identified 3611 incident cases of NHL. In multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models, we found no association between intake of red meat, processed meat, fish, poultry, heme iron, nitrite, nitrate, animal fat, or protein and NHL risk. MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) and DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), heterocyclic amines formed in meats cooked to well done at high temperatures, were inversely associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma [n = 979; HR (95% CI) for the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake: 0.73 (0.55, 0.96) and 0.77 (0.61, 0.98), respectively]. In this large U.S. cohort, meat intake was not associated with NHL or any histologic subtypes of NHL. Contrary to findings in animal models and other cancer sites, meat-cooking and -processing compounds did not increase NHL risk.

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Available from: Lindsay M Morton, Sep 29, 2014
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    • "The carcinogenic potential of HCAs is suggested by the following recently reported observations: (a) Cross et al. (2011) found a positive association between red meat consumption and human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma as well as between the HCA DiMeIQx and gastric cancer; (b) John, Stern, Sinha, and Koo (2011) found that the consumption of red meat processed at a high temperature is associated with an increased risk of advanced, but not localized, prostate cancer; (c) an epidemiological study by Freedman et al. (2010) revealed that the consumption of processed red meat and saturated fat might be associated with increased chronic liver disease and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and that white meat might be associated with reduced risk; and (d) Lauber and Gooderham (2011) found that the HCA PhIP which induces cancer of the colon, mammary gland, and prostate tissues when fed to rats, exhibited estrogenic effects in human breast cancer cells at sub-nanogram levels; and (e) other recent studies seem to indicate that HCAs are a risk factor in multiorgan human carcinogenesis (Anderson et al., 2012; Daniel et al., 2012; Joshi et al., 2012; Ollberding, Wilkens, Henderson, Kolonel, & Le Marchand, 2012). Heterocyclic amines are formed in muscle foods (meat, poultry, and fish) during the heating process of organic products containing free amino acids, glucose and creatinine (Alaejos, González, & Afonso, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of plant compounds on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and two major heat-induced heterocyclic amines (HCAs) MeIQx and PhIP in grilled ground beef patties were determined. Ground beef with added apple and olive extracts, onion powder, and clove bud oil was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7)CFU/g) and cooked to reach 45°C at the geometric center, flipped and then cooked for another 5min. Cooled samples were taken for microbiological and HCA analyses. Olive extract at 3% reduced E. coli O157:H7 to below detection. Reductions of up to 1 log were achieved with apple extract. Olive and apple extracts reduced MeIQx by up to 49.1 and 50.9% and PhIP by up to 50.6 and 65.2%, respectively. Onion powder reduced MeIQx and PhIP by 47 and 80.7%, respectively. Inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and suppression of HCAs in grilled meat were achieved by optimized amounts of selected plant compounds.
    Meat Science 03/2013; 94(4):461-467. DOI:10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.03.010 · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    • "nutrients, and other dietary constituents may be closely associated with the risk for several types of cancers (Davis, 1992; Donaldson, 2004; Ananad et al., 2008). Some studies observed positive associations between the intake of protein, fried red meat, dairy products, total fat, saturated fat and trans-saturated fat and NHL risk whereas the others reported no significant association (Donaldson, 2004; Daniel et al., 2012). The data on the association between meat and other nutrients intake and risk of NHL however, remains inconsistent. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The incidence of various types of cancers including the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has increased during the recent years. Diet and lifestyle factors have been reported to play an important role in the etiology of NHL. However, no such data are available from the Middle Eastern countries, including Oman. Materials and methods: Forty-three histologically confirmed cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) diagnosed at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) and the Royal Hospital (RH), Muscat, Oman and forty-three age and gender matched controls were the subjects of this study. Frequency matching was used to select the control population. Information on social and demographic data as well as the dietary intake was collected by personal interviews, using a 117-items semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results: A non-significant increased risk of NHL was observed with higher body mass index (BMI) (OR=1.20, 95%CI: 0.45, 2.93), whereas a significantly decreased risk of NHL was associated with a higher educational level (OR=0.12, 95%CI: 0.03, 0.53). A significantly increased risk was observed for higher intake of energy (OR=2.67, 95%CI: 0.94, 7.57), protein (OR=1.49, 95%CI: 0.54, 4.10) and carbohydrates (OR=5.32, 95%CI: 1.78, 15.86). Higher consumption of daily servings from cereals (OR=3.25, 95%CI: 0.87, 12.09) and meat groups (OR=1.55, 95%CI: 0.58, 4.15) were also found to be associated with risk of NHL, whereas a significantly reduced risk was associated with higher consumption of vegetables (OR=0.24, 95%CI: 0.07, 0.82). The consumption of fruits, milk and dairy products however showed no significant association with the risk of developing NHL. Conclusion: The results suggest that obesity, high caloric intake, higher consumption of carbohydrate and protein are associated with increased risk of NHL, whereas a significantly reduced risk was observed with higher intake of vegetables.
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a population-based, case-control study to test the hypothesis that consumption of meat and meat-related mutagens increases the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and whether the associations are modified by N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 1 and 2. Participants (336 cases and 460 controls) completed a 117-item food frequency questionnaire. The risk of NHL was associated with a higher intake of red meat (OR = 1.5; CI, 1.1-2.2), total fat (OR = 1.4; CI, 1.0-2.1), and oleic acid (OR = 1.5; CI, 1.0-2.2). NHL risk was also associated with a higher intake of very well-done pork (OR = 2.5; 95 % CI, 1.4-4.3) and the meat-related mutagen MeIQx (OR = 1.6; 95 % CI, 1.1-2.3). Analyses of the major NHL histologic subtypes showed a positive association between diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and higher intake of red meat (OR = 2.1; 95 % CI, 1.1-3.9) and the association was largely due to meat-related mutagens as a positive association was observed for higher intakes of both MeIQx (OR = 2.4; 95 % CI, 1.2-4.6) and DiMeIQx (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI, 1.0-3.5). Although the OR for follicular lymphoma (FL) was also increased with a higher red meat intake (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI, 1.1-3.3), the association appeared to be due to increased oleic acid (OR = 1.7; 95 % CI: 0.9-3.1). We found no evidence that polymorphisms in NAT1 or NAT2 modify the association between NHL and meat-related mutagens. Our results provide further evidence that red meat consumption is associated with an increase in NHL risk, and new evidence that the specific components of meat, namely fat and meat-related mutagens, may be impacting NHL subtype risk differently.
    Cancer Causes and Control 08/2012; 23(10):1681-92. DOI:10.1007/s10552-012-0047-2 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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