BZS1, a B-box protein, promotes photomorphogenesis downstream of both brassinosteroid and light signaling pathways.
ABSTRACT Photomorphogenesis is controlled by multiple signaling pathways, including the light and brassinosteroid (BR) pathways. BR signaling activates the BZR1 transcription factor, which is required for suppressing photomorphogenesis in the dark. We identified a suppressor of the BR hypersensitive mutant bzr1-1D and named it bzr1-1D suppressor1-Dominant (bzs1-D). The bzs1-D mutation was caused by overexpression of a B-box zinc finger protein BZS1, which is transcriptionally repressed by BZR1. Overexpression of BZS1 causes de-etiolation in the dark, short hypocotyls in the light, reduced sensitivity to BR treatment, and repression of many BR-activated genes. Knockdown of BZS1 by co-suppression partly suppressed the short hypocotyl phenotypes of BR-deficient or insensitive mutants. These results support that BZS1 is a negative regulator of BR response. BZS1 overexpressors are hypersensitive to different wavelengths of light and loss of function of BZS1 reduces plant sensitivity to light and partly suppresses the constitutive photomorphogenesis 1 (cop1) mutant in the dark, suggesting a positive role in light response. BZS1 protein accumulates at an increased level after light treatment of dark-grown BZS1-OX plants and in the cop1 mutants, and BZS1 interacts with COP1 in vitro, suggesting that light regulates BZS1 through COP1-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. These results demonstrate that BZS1 mediates the crosstalk between BR and light pathways.
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ABSTRACT: The salt tolerance protein (STO) of Arabidopsis was identified as a protein conferring salt tolerance to yeast cells. In order to uncover its function, we isolated an STO T-DNA insertion line and generated RNAi and overexpressor Arabidopsis plants. Here we present data on the hypocotyl growth of these lines indicating that STO acts as a negative regulator in phytochrome and blue-light signalling. Transcription analysis of STO uncovered a light and circadian dependent regulation of gene expression, and analysis of light-regulated genes revealed that STO is involved in the regulation of CHS expression during de-etiolation. In addition, we could show that CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 (COP1) represses the transcription of STO and contributes to the destabilization of the protein in etiolated seedlings. Microscopic analysis revealed that the STO:eGFP fusion protein is located in the nucleus, accumulates in a light-dependent manner, and, in transient transformation assays in onion epidermal cells, co-localizes with COP1 in nuclear and cytoplasmic aggregations. However, the analysis of gain- and loss-of-function STO mutants in the cop1-4 background points towards a COP1-independent role during photomorphogenesis.The Plant Journal 09/2007; 51(4):563-74. · 6.58 Impact Factor
Article: Activation tagging in Arabidopsis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Activation tagging using T-DNA vectors that contain multimerized transcriptional enhancers from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S gene has been applied to Arabidopsis plants. New activation-tagging vectors that confer resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin or the herbicide glufosinate have been used to generate several tens of thousands of transformed plants. From these, over 30 dominant mutants with various phenotypes have been isolated. Analysis of a subset of mutants has shown that overexpressed genes are almost always found immediately adjacent to the inserted CaMV 35S enhancers, at distances ranging from 380 bp to 3.6 kb. In at least one case, the CaMV 35S enhancers led primarily to an enhancement of the endogenous expression pattern rather than to constitutive ectopic expression, suggesting that the CaMV 35S enhancers used here act differently than the complete CaMV 35S promoter. This has important implications for the spectrum of genes that will be discovered by this method.Plant physiology 05/2000; 122(4):1003-13. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Brassinosteroid (BR) regulates gene expression and plant development through a receptor kinase-mediated signal transduction pathway. Despite the identification of many components of this pathway, it remains unclear how the BR signal is transduced from the cell surface to the nucleus. Here we describe a complete BR signalling pathway by elucidating key missing steps. We show that phosphorylation of BSK1 (BR-signalling kinase 1) by the BR receptor kinase BRI1 (BR-insensitive 1) promotes BSK1 binding to the BSU1 (BRI1 suppressor 1) phosphatase, and BSU1 inactivates the GSK3-like kinase BIN2 (BR-insensitive 2) by dephosphorylating a conserved phospho-tyrosine residue (pTyr 200). Mutations that affect phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of BIN2 pTyr200 (bin2-1, bin2-Y200F and quadruple loss-of-function of BSU1-related phosphatases) support an essential role for BSU1-mediated BIN2 dephosphorylation in BR-dependent plant growth. These results demonstrate direct sequential BR activation of BRI1, BSK1 and BSU1, and inactivation of BIN2, leading to accumulation of unphosphorylated BZR (brassinazole resistant) transcription factors in the nucleus. This study establishes a fully connected BR signalling pathway and provides new insights into the mechanism of GSK3 regulation.Nature Cell Biology 10/2009; 11(10):1254-60. · 20.76 Impact Factor