Margin Size is an Independent Predictor of Local Tumor Progression After Ablation of Colon Cancer Liver Metastases
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between the minimal margin size and local tumor progression (LTP) following CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CLM). METHODS: An institutional review board-approved, HIPPA-compliant review identified 73 patients with 94 previously untreated CLM that underwent RFA between March 2003 and May 2010, resulting in an ablation zone completely covering the tumor 4-8 weeks after RFA dynamic CT. Comparing the pre- with the post-RFA CT, the minimal margin size was categorized to 0, 1-5, 6-10, and 11-15 mm. Follow-up included CT every 2-4 months. Kaplan-Meier methodology and Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the effect of the minimal margin size, tumor location, size, and proximity to a vessel on LTP. RESULTS: Forty-five of 94 (47.9 %) CLM progressed locally. Median LTP-free survival (LPFS) was 16 months. Two-year LPFS rates for ablated CLM with minimal margin of 0, 1-5 mm, 6-10 mm, 11-15 mm were 26, 46, 74, and 80 % (p < 0.011). Minimal margin (p = 0.002) and tumor size (p = 0.028) were independent risk factors for LTP. The risk for LTP decreased by 46 % for each 5-mm increase in minimal margin size, whereas each additional 5-mm increase in tumor size increased the risk of LTP by 22 %. CONCLUSIONS: An ablation zone with a minimal margin uniformly larger than 5 mm 4-8 weeks postablation CT is associated with the best local tumor control.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose:To describe a split-dose technique for fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT)-guided ablation that permits both target localization and evaluation of treatment effectiveness.Materials and Methods:Institutional review board approved the study with a waiver of consent. From July to December 2011, 23 patients (13 women, 10 men; mean age, 59 years; range, 35-87 years) with 29 FDG-avid tumors (median size, 1.4 cm; range, 0.6-4.4 cm) were targeted for ablation. The location of the lesion was the liver (n = 23), lung (n = 4), adrenal gland (n = 1), and thigh (n = 1). Radiofrequency ablation was performed in 17 lesions; microwave ablation, in six; irreversible electroporation, in five; and cryoablation, in one. The pathologic condition of the tumor was metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma in 18 lesions, primary hepatocellular carcinoma in one lesion, and a variety of metastatic tumors in the remaining 10 lesions. A total of 4 mCi (148 MBq) of FDG was administered before the procedure for localization and imaging guidance. At completion of the ablation, an additional 8 mCi (296 MBq) of FDG was administered to assess ablation adequacy. Results of subsequent imaging follow-up were used to determine if postablation imaging after the second dose of FDG reliably helped predict complete tumor ablation. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the results.Results:Twenty-eight of 29 (97%) ablated lesions showed no residual FDG activity after the second intraprocedural FDG dose. One patient with residual activity underwent immediate biopsy that revealed residual viable tumor and was immediately re-treated. Follow-up imaging at a median of 155 days (range, 92-257 days) after ablation showed local recurrences in two (7%) lesions that were originally negative at postablation PET.Conclusion:Split-dose FDG PET/CT may be a useful tool to provide both guidance and endpoint evaluation, allowing an opportunity for repeat intervention if necessary. Further work is necessary to validate these concepts.© RSNA, 2013.Radiology 04/2013; DOI:10.1148/radiol.13121462 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To identify changes in plasma cytokine levels after image-guided thermal ablation of human tumors and to identify the factors that independently predict changes in plasma cytokine levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole-blood samples were collected from 36 patients at three time points: before ablation, after ablation (within 48 hours), and at follow-up (1-5 weeks after ablation). Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured using a multiplex immunoassay. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using cytokine level as the dependent variable and sample collection, time, age, sex, primary diagnosis, metastatic status, ablation site, and ablation type as the independent variables. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the plasma level of IL-6 after ablation compared with before ablation (9.6-fold±31-fold, P<.002). IL-10 also showed a significant increase after ablation (1.9-fold±2.8-fold, P<.02). Plasma levels of IL-1α, IL-2, and TNF-α were not significantly changed after ablation. Cryoablation resulted in the largest change in IL-6 level (>54-fold), whereas radiofrequency ablation and microwave ablation showed 3.6-fold and 3.4-fold changes, respectively. Ablation of melanomas showed the largest change in IL-6 48 hours after ablation (92×), followed by ablation of kidney (26×), liver (8×), and lung (6×) cancers. Multivariate analysis revealed that ablation type (P<.0003) and primary diagnosis (P<.03) were independent predictors of changes to IL-6 after ablation. Age was the only independent predictor of IL-10 levels after ablation (P< .019). CONCLUSIONS: Image-guided thermal ablation of tumors increases plasma levels of IL-6 and IL-10, without increasing plasma levels of IL-1α, IL-2, or TNF-α.Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR 04/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jvir.2013.02.015 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To compare the in-vitro efficiency of dual-switching monopolar (DSM) radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a separable clustered electrode (Octopus® electrodes) with consecutive monopolar (CM) and switching monopolar (SM) RFA techniques to create an ablative zone in the explanted bovine liver. For DSM-RFA, we used a prototype, three-channel, dual generator RFA Unit and Octopus® electrodes with three, 17 gauge internally cooled electrodes. The RFA Unit allowed simultaneous radiofrequency (RF) energy delivery to two electrodes of the Octopus® electrodes as well as automatic switching among the three electrode pairs according to the impedance changes. RF energy was sequentially applied to one of the three electrodes for 24 minutes (group A; CM mode, n = 10) or alternatively applied for 12 minutes (group B; SM mode, n = 10) or concurrently applied to a pair of electrodes for 12 minutes (group C; DSM mode, n = 10) in explanted bovine livers. Changes in the impedance and current during RFA as well as the dimensions of the thermal ablative zones were compared among the three groups. The mean, delivered RF energy amounts in groups A, B, and C were 63.15 ± 8.6 kJ, 72.13 ± 5.4 kJ, and 106.08 ± 13.4 kJ, respectively (p < 0.001). The DSM mode created a significantly larger ablation volume than did the other modes, i.e., 68.1 ± 10.2 cm(3) (group A), 92.0 ± 19.9 cm(3) (group B), and 115.1 ± 14.0 cm(3) (group C) (p < 0.001). The circularity in groups A, B, and C were 0.84 ± 0.06, 0.87 ± 0.04 and 0.90 ± 0.03, respectively (p = 0.03). DSM-RFA using Octopus® electrodes can help create large ablative zones within a relatively short time.Korean journal of radiology: official journal of the Korean Radiological Society 05/2013; 14(3):403-411. DOI:10.3348/kjr.2013.14.3.403 · 1.81 Impact Factor