Risk factors for acute respiratory failure in bariatric surgery: data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2006–2008
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) can be a life-threatening postoperative complication after bariatric surgery and is defined as the presence of acute respiratory distress or pulmonary insufficiency. We sought to identify predictors of ARF in patients who underwent bariatric surgery. METHODS: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, from 2006 to 2008, the clinical data from morbidly obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery were examined. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify the independent factors predictive of ARF. The factors examined included patient characteristics, co-morbidities, payer type, teaching status of hospital, surgical techniques (laparoscopic versus open), and type of bariatric operation (gastric bypass versus nongastric bypass). RESULTS: A total of 304,515 patients underwent bariatric surgery during the 3-year period. The overall ARF rate was 1.35%. The greatest rate of ARF (4.10%) was observed after open gastric bypass surgery. The ARF rate was lower after laparoscopic than after the open surgical technique (.94% versus 3.87%, respectively; P < .01) and after nongastric bypass versus gastric bypass (.82% versus 1.54%, respectively; P < .01). Using multivariate regression analysis, congestive heart failure (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 5.1), open surgery (AOR 3.3), chronic renal failure (AOR 2.9), gastric bypass (AOR 2.5), peripheral vascular disease (AOR 2.4), male gender (AOR 1.9), age >50 years (AOR 1.8), Medicare payer (AOR 1.8), alcohol abuse (AOR 1.8), chronic lung disease (AOR 1.6), diabetes mellitus (AOR 1.2), and smoking (AOR 1.1) were factors associated with greater rates of ARF. Compared with patients without ARF, patients with ARF had significantly greater in-hospital mortality (5.69% versus .04%, P < .01). CONCLUSION: We identified multiple risk factors that have an effect on the development of acute respiratory failure after bariatric surgery. Surgeons should consider these factors in surgical decision-making and inform patients of their risk of this potentially life-threatening complication.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bariatric surgery is an effective long-term treatment for morbid obesity. Although smoking is known to increase postoperative complications, the independent effect of smoking on bariatric surgical outcomes is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking on bariatric surgical outcomes using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP). Bariatric patients from 2005 to 2010 were identified in NSQIP for all types of bariatric procedures except adjustable gastric banding. Pre-treatment variables' univariate associations with smoking were examined with chi-square and t tests. Association of smoking with outcomes, corrected for relevant covariates, was tested with logistic regression within laparoscopic and open treatment groups. A total of 41,445 patients underwent bariatric surgery (35,696 laparoscopic; 5,749 open). After controlling for covariates, smoking significantly increased the risk of organ space infection, prolonged intubation, reintubation, pneumonia, sepsis, shock, and longer length of stay in all patients undergoing bariatric surgery. In the open bariatric surgery subgroup, smoking was associated with a significantly higher incidence of organ space infection, prolonged intubation, pneumonia, and length of stay. In the laparoscopic surgery subgroup, smokers had a significantly increased incidence of prolonged intubation, reintubation, sepsis, shock, and length of stay. Smoking did not significantly increase the risk of mortality for patients undergoing bariatric surgery. These data suggest that smoking is a modifiable preoperative risk factor that significantly increases the incidence of postoperative morbidity but not mortality in both laparoscopic and open bariatric surgery. Smoking cessation may minimize the risk of adverse outcomes. Future investigation is needed to identify the optimal length of preoperative smoking cessation.Surgical Endoscopy 06/2014; 28(11). DOI:10.1007/s00464-014-3581-z · 3.31 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Potassium-channels in the carotid body and the brainstem are important regulators of ventilation. The BKCa-channel contains response elements for CO, O2, and CO2. Its block increases carotid body signalling, phrenic nerve activity, and respiratory drive. GAL-021, a new BKCa-channel blocker, increases minute ventilation in rats and non-human primates. This study assessed the single-dose safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PKs), and pharmacodynamics (PDs) of GAL-021 in healthy volunteers.BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 07/2014; 113(5). DOI:10.1093/bja/aeu182 · 4.35 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background The value of spirometry as a routine preoperative test for bariatric surgery is debatable. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between spirometry results and the frequency of postoperative pulmonary complications in 602 obese patients. Methods Clinical files of patients undergoing bariatric surgery between 2004 and 2013 were reviewed. Demography, risk factors, respiratory symptoms, and spirometry results (forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC) were recorded, and their relationship with postoperative pulmonary complications was evaluated. Results There were 256 males and 346 females with a mean age of 40.2 ± 11.6 years and a mean BMI of 42.1 ± 6.4 kg/m2. History of smoking was found in 408 patients (68 %). Preoperative respiratory symptoms were present in 328 (54.5 %). Most frequent symptoms were snoring (288), dyspnea (119), bronchospasm , and chronic productive cough . In 153 patients, history of respiratory disease was documented. The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) was present in 124, 20 requiring continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Asthma was present in 27 and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in 2. Variables associated to a higher risk of pulmonary complications were OSAS (OR 2.3), an abnormal spirometry (OR 2.6), male gender (OR 1.9), and preoperative respiratory symptoms (OR 1.9). Using multivariate logistic regression, an abnormal spirometry was a significant predictor of postoperative pulmonary complications in patients with respiratory symptoms and/or OSAS. However, it lost prognostic significance when both conditions were subtracted. Conclusions In obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, abnormal preoperative spirometry predicts postoperative respiratory complications only in patients with OSAS.Obesity Surgery 09/2014; 25(3). DOI:10.1007/s11695-014-1420-x · 3.74 Impact Factor