Article

Evaluation of Methods to Relieve Parental Perceptions of Vaccine-Associated Pain and Anxiety in Children: A Pilot Study.

Journal of Pediatric Health Care (Impact Factor: 1.97). 04/2012; DOI: 10.1016/j.pedhc.2012.02.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The pain and anxiety associated with vaccination is a significant reason why parents are reluctant to have their children vaccinated. Distraction methods and vapocoolant sprays may be use to modify the parent's perceptions of their child's pain and anxiety, thus encouraging parents to return for the child's next vaccination. METHODS: A convenience sample of 68 parents with children ranging in age from 2 to 12 years was selected. The parents and the child were randomly assigned to three groups: a control group, a DVD distraction group, or a vapocoolant spray group. After the child was vaccinated, parents evaluated the child's pain and anxiety. RESULTS: No significant difference in the parents' perception of their child's pain or anxiety was found between the two treatment groups compared with the control group. Some parents expressed the desire to be able to choose the type of distraction method their child received rather than having them randomly assigned to a group. DISCUSSION: Although quantitative results were not statistically significant in this pilot study, parents commented that the DVD distraction method seemed helpful before and/or after vaccination, but not during vaccination, and parents appreciated the distraction. Parents, however, would prefer to choose the intervention rather than being randomly assigned to a group. The effectiveness of interventions with regard to parental perceptions of pain or anxiety warrants further study.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Karlen E Luthy, Mar 05, 2014
1 Follower
 · 
105 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Because the child’s pain/crying/anxiety is recognized as a common reason why parents hesitate in immunizing their children, it may be helpful to identify ways to reduce a child’s pain/anxiety during immunization. If the use of distraction (using a DVD movie) or a local anesthetic spray successfully reduces the child’s pain, it may also reduce the child’s anxiety and crying during future immunizations, thus encouraging parents to return for the next immunization in a timelier manner Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of using a distraction method (DVD) or vapocoolant spray to reduce a child’s pain/anxiety associated with immunization administration. Methods: The researchers obtained IRB approval. A convenience sample of subjects (ages 2-12) participated in the 120 day study at a local pediatrician office. Subjects were randomized into three groups: a control group, a distraction method group, and a vapocoolant group. Following immunization the parent/guardian evaluated the intervention, describing their child’s pain and anxiety during the current immunization using the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale and a Likert Scale. Results: Sixty-seven children participated in the study. Statistically, the reduction of pain was not significantly different between the distraction group (DVD), control group, and vapocoolant group. However, clinically the distraction method (DVD) was more effective with younger children and the vapocoolant spray was more effective with older children. Conclusions: While distraction with a DVD movie may relieve some immunization-related pain with younger children, and use of a vapocoolant spray may relieve some immunization-related pain with older children, neither of these methods are significantly more effective in reducing a child’s pain during immunization than no intervention at all. Still, attempting to reduce a child’s pain and anxiety during the immunization process is a worthy goal that warrants further research.
    45rd National Immunization Conference 2011 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 03/2011
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This quality improvement project implemented an evidence-based immunization protocol aimed at decreasing pain and distress associated with immunizations for children ages 4 to 6 by utilizing distraction and a benzocaine-based anesthetic spray. The original protocol is used at a large, university-based pediatric primary care hospital. A convenience sample of 30 children from a community-based healthcare center was utilized to assess effectiveness in alternate settings. This quasi-experimental project collected survey information from child participants and consenting caregivers. Statistical analysis by paired t-test indicated a statistically significant decrease in reported distress by both the child and the caregiver utilizing the immunization protocol.
    Journal of Pediatric Nursing 09/2014; 30(2). DOI:10.1016/j.pedn.2014.09.002 · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the systematic review of strategies for addressing vaccine hesitancy is to identify strategies that have been implemented and evaluated across diverse global contexts in an effort to respond to, and manage, issues of vaccine hesitancy. This is to fulfil the requirements of the SAGE working group (WG) dealing with vaccine hesitancy in respect to: a) identifying existing and new activities and strategies relating to vaccines or from other areas that could successfully address vaccine hesitancy; b) identifying strategies that do not work well, and; c) prioritising activities and strategies based on an assessment of their potential impact. These requirements were translated into the following specific objectives: 1. Identify published strategies related to vaccine hesitancy and hesitancy of other health technologies (reproductive health technologies (RHT) were chosen as the additional focus) and provide a descriptive analysis of the findings; 2. Map all evaluated strategies to the SAGE WG “Model of determinants of Vaccine Hesitancy” (Appendix 1) and identify key characteristics; 3. Evaluate relevant evaluated strategies relating to vaccine hesitancy using GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation); relevance was informed by the PICO questions defined a priori by the WG, and; 4. Synthesise findings in a manner which aids the design of future interventions and further research.