Generation of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells from Small Molecules and OCT4 Reprogrammed Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
pISSN (Impact Factor: 5.71). 02/2012; 1(2):96-109. DOI: 10.5966/sctm.2011-0057
Source: PubMed


Autologous retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) grafts derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may be used to cure blinding diseases in which RPE dysfunction results in photoreceptor degeneration. Four, two, and one factor-derived iPS (4F-, 2F-, and 1F-iPSCs, respectively) were differentiated into fully functional cuboidal shaped pigmented cells in polarized monolayers that express RPE-specific markers. 1F-iPS-RPE strongly resemble primary human fetal RPE (hfRPE) based on proteomic and untargeted metabolomic analyses, and, utilizing novel in vivo imaging technology coupled with electroretinography, we demonstrate that 1F-iPS-RPE mediate anatomical and functional rescue of photoreceptors after transplantation in an animal model of RPE-mediated retinal degeneration. 1F-iPS-RPE cells were injected subretinally as a suspension and formed a monolayer dispersed between host RPE cells. Furthermore, 1F-iPS-RPE do not simply provide trophic support to rescue photoreceptors as previously speculated, but actually phagocytose photoreceptor outer segments in vivo and restore visual cycling (based on high-resolution mass spectrometry based detection of recycled photoreceptor protein and lipid end products and electron microscopic analysis). Thus, 1F-iPS-RPE grafts may be superior to conventional iPS-RPE for clinical use since 1F-iPS-RPE closely resemble hfRPE, mediate anatomical and functional photoreceptor rescue in vivo and are generated using a reduced number of potentially oncogenic reprogramming factors.

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    • "Subretinal injections were performed as described previously (Krohne et al., 2012). Briefly, the eyes from deeply anaesthetized mice were pierced with a sharp 30G needle (Becton Dickinson) just below the limbus. "
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    • "Several protocols for RPE cell differentiation have been described (Ukrohne et al. 2012; Buchholz et al. 2013; Zhu et al. 2013; Rowland et al. 2013; Maruotti et al. 2013; Singh et al. 2013b). We have slightly modified an earlier protocol by Ukrohne et al. (2012) which proofed highly efficient. "
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