Synthesis of truncated androgen receptor (AR) splice variants has emerged as an important mechanism of prostate cancer (PCa) resistance to AR-targeted therapy and progression to a lethal castration-resistant phenotype. However, the precise role of these factors at this stage of the disease is not clear due to loss of multiple COOH-terminal AR protein domains, including the canonical nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the AR hinge region. Despite loss of this NLS, we show that diverse truncated AR variant species have a basal level of nuclear localization sufficient for ligand-independent transcriptional activity. Whereas full-length AR requires Hsp90 and importin-β for active nuclear translocation, basal nuclear localization of truncated AR variants is independent of these classical signals. For a subset of truncated AR variants, this basal level of nuclear import can be augmented by unique COOH-terminal sequences that reconstitute classical AR NLS activity. However, this property is separable from ligand-independent transcriptional activity. Therefore, the AR splice variant core consisting of the AR NH(2)-terminal domain and DNA binding domain is sufficient for nuclear localization and androgen-independent transcriptional activation of endogenous AR target genes. Indeed, we show that truncated AR variants with nuclear as well as nuclear/cytoplasmic localization patterns can drive androgen-independent growth of PCa cells. Together, our data demonstrate that diverse truncated AR species with varying efficiencies of nuclear localization can contribute to castration-resistant PCa pathology by driving persistent ligand-independent AR transcriptional activity.
"While in vivo both, the AR and ARΔLBD are expressed in CRPC cells, it was suggested that ARΔLBD- receptors must act in concert with full length AR to activate AR-dependent genes in CRPC . Although there is experimental evidence that ARΔLBDs like ARv567es and Q640X form heterodimers ,  with full length AR in vitro, the functional relationships between the AR and ARΔLBD remain largely unknown , . However, based on clinical and experimental observations there is no doubt that ARΔLBDs are involved in the progression of CRPC , –. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Advanced castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is often characterized by an increase of C-terminally truncated, constitutively active androgen receptor (AR) variants. Due to the absence of a ligand binding domain located in the AR-C-terminus, these receptor variants (also termed ARΔLBD) are unable to respond to all classical forms of endocrine treatments like surgical/chemical castration and/or application of anti-androgens.
In this study we tested the effects of the naturally occurring stilbene resveratrol (RSV) and (E)-4-(2, 6-Difluorostyryl)-N, N-dimethylaniline, a fluorinated dialkylaminostilbene (FIDAS) on AR- and ARΔLBD in prostate cancer cells. The ability of the compounds to modulate transcriptional activity of AR and the ARΔLBD-variant Q640X was shown by reporter gene assays. Expression of endogenous AR and ARΔLBD mRNA and protein levels were determined by qRT-PCR and Western Blot. Nuclear translocation of AR-molecules was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. AR and ARΔLBD/Q640X homo-/heterodimer formation was assessed by mammalian two hybrid assays. Biological activity of both compounds in vivo was demonstrated using a chick chorioallantoic membrane xenograft assay.
The stilbenes RSV and FIDAS were able to significantly diminish AR and Q640X-signalling. Successful inhibition of the Q640X suggests that RSV and FIDAS are not interfering with the AR-ligand binding domain like all currently available anti-hormonal drugs. Repression of AR and Q640X-signalling by RSV and FIDAS in prostate cancer cells was caused by an inhibition of the AR and/or Q640X-dimerization. Although systemic bioavailability of both stilbenes is very low, both compounds were also able to downregulate tumor growth and AR-signalling in vivo.
RSV and FIDAS are able to inhibit the dimerization of AR and ARΔLBD molecules suggesting that stilbenes might serve as lead compounds for a novel generation of AR-inhibitors.
PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e98566. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098566 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Moreover, it was recently shown that truncated forms of AR with intact NH 2 -terminal and DNA binding domains are constitutively active and able to maintain androgen-independent transcriptional activation of endogenous AR target genes, thus supporting androgen-independent growth of PCa cells (Chan et al., 2012). The expression of these forms is associated with a poor prognosis and they have been recognized Fig. 2 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality have decreased in recent years. Nonetheless, it remains one of the most prevalent cancers in men, being a disquieting cause of men's death worldwide. Changes in many cell signaling pathways have a predominant role in the onset, development, and progression of the disease. These include prominent pathways involved in the growth, apoptosis, and angiogenesis of the normal prostate gland, such as androgen and estrogen signaling, and other growth factor signaling pathways. Understanding the foundations of PCa is leading to the discovery of key molecules that could be used to improve patient management. The ideal scenario would be to have a panel of molecules, preferably detectable in body fluids, that are specific and sensitive biomarkers for PCa. In the early stages, androgen deprivation is the gold standard therapy. However, as the cancer progresses, it eventually becomes independent of androgens, and hormonal therapy fails. For this reason, androgen-independent PCa is still a major therapeutic challenge. By disrupting specific protein interactions or manipulating the expression of some key molecules, it might be possible to regulate tumor growth and metastasis formation, avoiding the systemic side effects of current therapies. Clinical trials are already underway to assess the efficacy of molecules specially designed to target key proteins or protein interactions. In this review, we address that recent progress made towards understanding PCa development and the molecular pathways underlying this pathology. We also discuss relevant molecular markers for the management of PCa and new therapeutic challenges.
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 01/2014; 15(1):16-42. DOI:10.1631/jzus.B1300106 · 1.28 Impact Factor
"In contrast to full length AR, which translocates into the nucleus upon androgenic stimuli, many ARΔLBD are able to enter the nucleus even in the absence of androgens [5,6]. Although ARΔLBD largely vary in their synthesis, a recently described core domain consisting of the AR N-terminal domain and the DNA-binding domain (NTD/DBD core) is sufficient for AR-variants to access the nucleus and to activate AR-target genes . Due to the absence of a functional LBD, the constitutively active ARΔLBD are insensitive towards classical endocrine therapies, which either directly target the LBD (antiandrogene therapies) or indirectly target LBD-function by suppression of androgen synthesis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that the development of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPCa) is commonly associated with an aberrant, ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor (AR). A putative mechanism allowing prostate cancer (PCa) cells to grow under low levels of androgens, is the expression of constitutively active, C-terminally truncated AR lacking the AR-ligand binding domain (LBD). Due to the absence of a LBD, these receptors, termed ARΔLBD, are unable to respond to any form of anti-hormonal therapies. In this study we demonstrate that the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib inhibits AR as well as ARΔLBD-signalling in CRPCa cells. This inhibition was paralleled by proteasomal degradation of the AR- and ARΔLBD-molecules. In line with these observations, maximal antiproliferative effects of sorafenib were achieved in AR and ARΔLBD-positive PCa cells. The present findings warrant further investigations on sorafenib as an option for the treatment of advanced AR-positive PCa.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2012; 13(9):11530-42. DOI:10.3390/ijms130911530 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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