Article

CTC1 Mutations in a patient with dyskeratosis congenita.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Stem Cell Program, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer (Impact Factor: 2.35). 04/2012; 59(2):311-4. DOI: 10.1002/pbc.24193
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome caused by mutations in seven genes involved in telomere biology, with approximately 50% of cases remaining genetically uncharacterized. We report a patient with classic DC carrying a compound heterozygous mutation in the CTC1 (conserved telomere maintenance component 1) gene, which has recently implicated in the pleiotropic syndrome Coats plus. This report confirms a molecular link between DC and Coats plus and expands the genotype-phenotype complexity observed in telomere-related genetic disorders.

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    ABSTRACT: Germline mutations in telomere biology genes cause dyskeratosis congenita (DC), an inherited bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition syndrome. DC is a clinically heterogeneous disorder diagnosed by the triad of dysplastic nails, abnormal skin pigmentation, and oral leukoplakia; Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HH), a clinically severe variant of DC, also includes cerebellar hypoplasia, immunodeficiency, and intrauterine growth retardation. Approximately 70% of DC cases are associated with a germline mutation in one of nine genes, the products of which are all involved in telomere biology. Using exome sequencing, we identified mutations in Adrenocortical Dysplasia Homolog (ACD) (encoding TPP1), a component of the telomeric shelterin complex, in one family affected by HH. The proband inherited a deletion from his father and a missense mutation from his mother, resulting in extremely short telomeres and a severe clinical phenotype. Characterization of the mutations revealed that the single-amino-acid deletion affecting the TEL patch surface of the TPP1 protein significantly compromises both telomerase recruitment and processivity, while the missense mutation in the TIN2-binding region of TPP1 is not as clearly deleterious to TPP1 function. Our results emphasize the critical roles of the TEL patch in proper stem cell function and demonstrate that TPP1 is the second shelterin component (in addition to TIN2) to be implicated in DC.
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    ABSTRACT: Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inherited bone marrow failure (BMF) syndrome characterized by the classic triad of abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy, and oral leukoplakia. However, patients usually develop BMF and are predisposed to cancer, with increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma and hematolymphoid neoplasms. DC is a disease of defective telomere maintenance and is heterogeneous at the genetic level. It can be inherited in X-linked, autosomal dominant, or autosomal recessive patterns. Mutations in at least ten telomere- and telomerase-associated genes have been described in DC. There are no targeted therapies for DC and patients usually die of BMF due to a deficient renewing capability of hematopoietic stem cells. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only curative treatment for BMF.
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    ABSTRACT: Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that is necessary for overcoming telomere shortening in human germ and stem cells. Mutations in telomerase or other telomere-maintenance proteins can lead to diseases characterized by depletion of hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow failure. Telomerase localization to telomeres requires an interaction with a region on the surface of the telomere-binding protein TPP1 known as the TEL patch. Here we identify a family with aplastic anemia and other related hematopoietic disorders, in which a one amino acid deletion in the TEL patch of TPP1 (ΔK170) segregates with disease. All family members carrying this mutation, but not those with wild-type TPP1, have short telomeres. When introduced into 293T cells, TPP1 with the ΔK170 mutation is able to localize to telomeres but fails to recruit telomerase to telomeres, supporting a causal relationship between this TPP1 mutation and bone marrow disorders. ACD/TPP1 is thus a newly-identified telomere-related gene in which mutations cause aplastic anemia and related bone marrow failure disorders.
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