Incidence and possible pathogenesis of sentinel node micrometastases in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast detected using molecular whole lymph node assay

Division of Pathology, the Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31, Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550, Japan.
British Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.82). 04/2012; 106(10):1675-81. DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2012.168
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The pathogenesis of lymph node metastases in preinvasive breast cancer – ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) – remains controversial. The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay is a novel molecular method that can assess a whole node and detect clinically relevant metastases. In this retrospective cohort study, we determined the performance of the OSNA assay in DCIS and the pathogenesis of node-positive DCIS.
The subjects consisted of 623 patients with DCIS who underwent sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy. Of these, 2-mm-sectioned nodes were examined using frozen-section (FS) histology in 338 patients between 2007 and 2009, while 285 underwent OSNA whole node assays between 2009 and 2011. The SN-positivity rate was compared between cohorts, and the characteristics of OSNA-positive DCIS were investigated.
The OSNA detected more cases of SN metastases than FS histology (12 out of 285, 4.2% vs 1 out of 338, 0.3%). Most of the metastases were micrometastases. The characteristics of high-risk DCIS (i.e., mass formation, size, grade, and comedo) and preoperative breast biopsy (i.e., methods or time to surgery) were not valid for OSNA assay–positive DCIS.
The OSNA detects more SN metastases in DCIS than FS histology. Further examination of the primary tumours and follow-up of node-positive DCIS are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis.

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    ABSTRACT: For breast cancer patients with a preoperative diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy has been proposed as axillary staging procedure in selected patients with a higher likelihood of having occult invasive lesions. With detailed histological examination of primary tumors and molecular whole-node analysis of SNs, we aimed to validate whether this selective application accurately identifies patients with SN metastasis. The subjects were 336 patients with a preoperative needle-biopsy diagnosis of DCIS who underwent SN biopsy using the one-step nucleic acid amplification assay from 2009-2011. The incidence and preoperative predictors of upstaging to invasive disease on final pathology and SN metastasis, and their correlation were investigated. Of the 336 patients, 113 (33.6%) had invasive disease, and 6 (1.8%) and 17 (5.0%) had macro- and micrometastasis in axillary nodes. Of the 113 patients with invasive disease, 4 (3.5%) and 9 (8.0%) had macro- and micrometastasis. Predictors of invasive disease included palpability, mammographic mass and calcifications (spread >20 mm), and intraductal solid structure, but no predictor was found for SN metastasis. Therefore, even though occult invasive disease was found at final pathology, most of the patients have no metastasis or only micrometastasis in axillary nodes. Predictors of invasive disease and SN metastasis were not completely consistent, so the selective SN biopsy for patients with a higher risk of invasive disease may not accurately identify those with SN metastasis. More accurate application of SN biopsy is required for patients with a preoperative diagnosis of DCIS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Background:For patients with breast cancer treated with preoperative chemotherapy, residual tumour burden in lymph nodes is the strongest prognostic factor. However, conventional pathological examination has limitations that hinder the accurate and reproducible measurement. The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay is a novel molecular method for detecting nodal metastasis. In this prospective multicentre trial, we assessed the performance of the OSNA assay in detecting nodal metastasis after chemotherapy.Methods:In total, 302 lymph nodes from 80 breast cancer patients who underwent axillary dissection after chemotherapy were analysed. Each node was cut into two or four slices. One piece or alternate pieces were evaluated by pathology, and the other(s) were examined using the OSNA assay. The results of the two methods were compared. Stromal fibrosis, histiocytic aggregates, and degenerated cancer cells were regarded as chemotherapy-induced histological changes.Results:The overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the OSNA assay compared with the reference pathology were 91.1%, 88.3%, and 91.7%, respectively. Of the 302 lymph nodes, 66 (21.9%) exhibited chemotherapy-induced histology. For these nodes, the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 90.9%, 88.9%, and 93.3%, respectively.Conclusion:The OSNA assay can detect the residual tumour burden as accurately as conventional pathology, although chemotherapy-induced histological changes are present.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 3 September 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.503
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    ABSTRACT: Aim We aimed to assess the one step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay as an intraoperative method in comparison with frozen sections (FS) for detection of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) of breast cancer. Method 100 SLNs from patients with breast carcinoma were enrolled within a 3-month period. Alternate 2 mm node slices were subjected to routine FS, and later to permanent histology, and the rest for automated molecular detection of CK19 mRNA using OSNA. FS and OSNA findings were compared with permanent histology results. Difference in turnaround time was also noted. Results With permanent histology as gold standard, OSNA was discrepant in 8 of 98 (3 false negative, 5 false positive) included SLNs whereas FS had 2 false negative cases. FS had higher sensitivity (89%, p=<0.001), specificity (100%, p=0.001) and concordance rate (98%) than OSNA (83%, 94% and 92%, respectively). FS showed almost perfect agreement (kappa=0.929) whereas OSNA showed substantial agreement (kappa=0.740) when compared with permanent histology. OSNA turnaround time was twice longer (mean of 47.7 min) than FS. Conclusions Automation of SLN assessment using OSNA is a potentially useful intraoperative diagnostic tool with acceptable accuracy. Discordant findings in this study may be due to sampling allocation. Since OSNA is more time-consuming, its practical advantage over routine FS requires further study in view of current technical workflow considerations.
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