The clinical management of lobular carcinoma in situ lesions remains challenging. Our aim was to evaluate the risk of relapse for lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) patients, diagnosed on mammography performed for microcalcifications and according to proliferation assessed by Ki67 staining.
A series of 47 patient's files with LCIS and followed in our institution were retrospectively selected. All patients underwent lumpectomy without radiation therapy. The expression of E-cadherin, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), EGFR and Ki67 were determined. Four different classes were then defined with the following criteria: ER+ and Ki67 ≤ 10%; ER+, Ki67 >10%; ER-; ER-PR- and EGFR+.
Patient's mean age was 51.3 yrs. The majority of the lesions were classical LCIS (97%). All cases were E-cadherin either negative (71%) or weak and incomplete (29%). Among the 44 evaluable cases, 34 cases were ER or PR positive with KI67 ≤ 10% (79%), 9 cases ER positive with KI67 > 10% (21%), 1 case was ER and PR negative and expressed EGFR. At five years, all patients were alive, 1/34 ER positive and Ki67 low experienced a relapse contrasting with 3 out of 9 ER positive and Ki67 high (3 invasive carcinomas including 2 ductal and 1 lobular) (p = 0.0054).
In this retrospective study, we observed a higher risk of relapse associated with a high proliferative activity of classical LCIS. If confirmed in larger series, this observation suggests that radiation therapy or hormonotherapy could be discussed for patients with Ki67 high classical LCIS in order to decrease their risk of relapse.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) play important roles in carcinogenesis of many tumors including the lung. Since multiple C/EBPs are expressed in lung, the combinatorial expression of these C/EBPs on lung carcinogenesis is not known.
A transgenic mouse line expressing a dominant negative A-C/EBP under the promoter of lung epithelial Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) gene in doxycycline dependent fashion was subjected to 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung carcinogenesis bioassay in the presence and absence of doxycycline, and the effect of abolition of DNA binding activities of C/EBPs on lung carcinogenesis was examined.
A-C/EBP expression was found not to interfere with tumor development; however, it suppressed the malignant conversion of adenoma to carcinoma during NNK-induced lung carcinogenesis. The results suggested that Ki67 may be used as a marker for lung carcinomas in mouse.
The DNA binding of C/EBP family members can be used as a potential molecular target for lung cancer therapy.
Molecular Cancer 12/2012; 11(1):90. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-11-90 · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Although invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast differs from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in numerous respects - including its genetics, clinical phenotype, metastatic pattern, and chemosensitivity - most experts continue to manage ILC and IDC identically in the adjuvant setting. Here we address this discrepancy by comparing early-stage ILC and IDC in two breast cancer patient cohorts of differing nationality and ethnicity.
The clinicopathologic features of 2029 consecutive breast cancer patients diagnosed in Hong Kong (HK) and Australia (AUS) were compared. Interrelationships between tumor histology and other clinicopathologic variables, including ER/PR and Ki67, were analysed.
Two hundred thirty-nine patients were identified with ILC (11.8%) and 1790 patients with IDC. AUS patients were older (p <0.001) and more often postmenopausal (p <0.03) than HK patients. As expected, ILC tumors were lower in grade and proliferative rate, and more often ER-positive and HER2-negative, than IDC (p <0.002); yet despite this, ILC tumors were as likely as IDC to present with nodal metastases (p >0.7). Moreover, whereas IDC tumors exhibited a strongly negative relationship between ER/PR and Ki67 status (p <0.0005), ILC tumors failed to demonstrate any such inverse relationship (p >0.6).
These data imply that the primary adhesion defect in ILC underlies a secondary stromal-epithelial disconnect between hormonal signaling and tumor growth, suggesting in turn that this peritumoral feedback defect could reduce both the antimetastatic (adjuvant) and tumorilytic (palliative) efficacy of cytotoxic therapies for such tumors. Hence, we caution against assuming similar adjuvant chemotherapeutic survival benefits for ILC and IDC tumors with similar ER and Ki67, whether based on immunohistochemical or gene expression assays.
BMC Cancer 11/2014; 14(1):826. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-826 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lobular carcinomas in situ (LCIS) represent 1-2% of all breast cancers. Both significance and treatment remain widely debated, as well as the possible similarities with DCIS.
Two hundred patients with pure LCIS were retrospectively analyzed in seven centres from 1990 to 2008. Median age was 52 years; 176 patients underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and 24 mastectomy. Seventeen patients received whole breast irradiation (WBRT) after BCS and 20 hormonal treatment (15 by tamoxifen).
With a 144-month median follow-up (FU), there were no local recurrences (LR) among 24 patients treated by mastectomy. With the same FU, 3 late LR out of 17 (17%) occurred in patients treated by BCS and WBRT (with no LR at 10 years). Among 159 patients treated by BCS alone, 20 developed LR (13%), but with only a 72-month FU (17.5% at 10 years). No specific LR risk factors were identified. Three patients developed metastases, two after invasive LR; 22 patients (11%) developed contralateral BC (59% invasive) and another five had second cancer.
LCIS is not always an indolent disease. The long-term outcome is quite similar to most ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS). The main problems are the accuracy of pathological definition and a clear identification of more aggressive subtypes, in order to avoid further invasive LR. BCS + WBRT should be discussed in some selected cases, and the long-term results seem comparable to DCIS.
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