Overweight and obese boys reduce food intake in response to a glucose drink but fail to increase intake in response to exercise of short duration.
ABSTRACT The effect of short duration exercise (EXR) on food intake (FI) and energy balance (EB) is not well understood in either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW) and obese (OB) 9-14 years old children. Our purpose was to describe the effects of activity and a glucose drink on short term FI, appetite, and EB in NW, OW, and OB boys. Each boy received in random order either a noncaloric Sucralose sweetened control or glucose (1.0 g·kg(-1) body weight) drink 5 min after either exercise (EXR) or sedentary (SED) activity. Boys exercised for 15 min at their ventilation threshold (V(T)) in experiment 1 or at 25% above their V(T) in experiment 2. FI was measured at an ad libitum pizza meal 30 min after drink consumption. FI was lower after the glucose drink (p < 0.001) but not affected by activity, even though EXR increased appetite (p < 0.001). OW/OB boys ate more total food than NW boys (p = 0.020). EB over the duration of the experiments was reduced by EXR in OW/OB boys (p = 0.013) but not in NW boys in either experiment (p > 0.05). We conclude that intake regulation in OW/OB boys in response to a glucose drink is similar to NW boys, but it may be less responsive to activity.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Barkha P Patel, May 30, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Background: The acute relationship between substrate oxidation as measured by respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and food intake (FI) has not been defined. Objective: To determine acute relationships between RER, modified by exercise and a glucose load, and FI and net energy balance (NEB) in physically active normal-weight boys and men. Methods: In a crossover design, 15 boys (9-12y) and 15 men (20-30y) were randomly assigned to four conditions: 1) water and rest, 2) glucose-drink and rest, 3) water and exercise and 4) glucose-drink and exercise. Indirect calorimetry was used to determine RER, energy expenditure (EE), and carbohydrate and fat oxidation. Subjective appetite and blood glucose were also measured. Results: RER was higher after glucose (0.91±0.01) compared with water (0.87±0.01) (p<0.0001), and after exercise (0.91±0.01) compared with rest (0.88±0.01) (p=0.0043) in men (0.91±0.01) compared with boys (0.88±0.01) (p=0.0002). FI (kcal/m2) did not differ between boys and men. Glucose (582±24 kcal/m2) reduced FI compared with water (689±25 kcal/m2) (p<0.0001), and further decreased FI when combined with exercise (554±34 kcal/m2) (p=0.0303). NEB was reduced with exercise (573±25 kcal/m2) compared with the sedentary condition (686±24 kcal/m2) (p < 0.0001), but was higher after the glucose drink (654±27 kcal/m2) compared with water (605±25 kcal/m2) (p=0.0267). No correlations were found between RER and FI or NEB in boys and men, except in the control condition of resting with water. Conclusions: In conclusion, the short-term modification of substrate oxidation by glucose and/or exercise in normal weight and active boys and men did not affect FI and NEB.Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 10/2014; DOI:10.1139/apnm-2014-0188 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Exercise is implicated in modifying subsequent energy intake (EI) through alterations in hunger and/or satiety hormones. Our aim was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on hunger, satiety regulatory peptides, and EI in obese adolescents. Nine obese girls (age: 13-18 years old, BMI: 33.74 ± 4.04 kg/m2) participated in this randomized controlled crossover study. Each participant randomly underwent 2 experimental protocols: control (seated for 150 min) and exercise (exercised for 30 min on a treadmill performed at ventilatory threshold [VT] intensity and then remained seated for 120 min). Leptin, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36), and subjective hunger were measured at baseline as well as 30 min and 150 min, followed by 24-hr EI measurement. Exercise session resulted in an acute increase in PYY3-36 (p < .01) without changes in leptin and/or hunger scores. The control session increased hunger scores (p < .01) and decreased circulating leptin levels (p = .03). There was a strong effect size for carbohydrate intake (d = 2.14) and a modest effect size for protein intake (d = 0.61) after the exercise compared with the control session. Exercise performed at VT intensity in this study appears to provoke a state of transient anorexia in obese girls. These changes may be linked to an increase in circulating PYY3-36 and maintenance of leptin levels.Pediatric exercise science 11/2014; 26(4):463-9. DOI:10.1123/pes.2013-0200 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background and Objective:The role of sugars in solutions on subjective appetite and food intake (FI) has received little investigation in children. Therefore, we examined the effect of isocaloric solutions (200 kcal/250 ml) of sugars including sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS) or glucose, compared with a non-caloric sucralose control, on subjective appetite and FI in 9- to 14-year-old normal weight (NW) boys.Participants and Methods:NW boys (n=15) received each of the test solutions, in random order, 60 min before an ad libitum pizza meal. Subjective appetite was measured at baseline (0 min), and 15, 30, 45 and 60 min.Results:Only glucose (P=0.003), but neither sucrose nor HFCS, reduced FI compared with the sucralose control. This led to a higher cumulative energy intake, compared with sucralose, after sucrose (P=0.009) and HFCS (P=0.01), but not after glucose. In all treatment sessions, subjective average appetite increased from baseline to 60 min, but change from baseline average appetite was the highest after sucrose (P<0.005). Furthermore, sucrose (r=-0.59, P=0.02) and HFCS (r=-0.56, P=0.03), but not glucose, were inversely associated with test meal FI when the treatment dose (200 kcal) was expressed on a body weight (kg) basis.Conclusions:Change from baseline subjective average appetite was the highest after sucrose, but only the glucose solution suppressed FI at the test meal 60 min later in NW boys.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 26 March 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.33.European journal of clinical nutrition 03/2014; 68(7). DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2014.33 · 2.95 Impact Factor