Glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: focus on combination therapy with colesevelam HCl.
ABSTRACT The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is high among the elderly population. Treatment of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes presents challenges because of co-morbidities and the potential increase in the risk of adverse effects. Hyperlipidaemia is also common in the elderly population. Glucose- and lipid-lowering treatment in elderly patients should be individualized on the basis of the patient's life expectancy, health status and cardiovascular risk factors, and evidence-based guideline recommendations. Because elderly patients often have impaired renal and hepatic function, careful considerations must be made when selecting appropriate glucose- and lipid-lowering therapy. There are a number of potential safety issues associated with various glucose- and lipid-lowering therapies that are relevant to elderly patients, including increased risk of heart failure exacerbations, weight loss, increased risk of hypoglycaemia, increased risk of myopathy, and contraindications of some agents in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. The bile acid sequestrant colesevelam HCl is unique compared with other glucose- and lipid-lowering therapies because it is the only product approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, as an adjunct to diet and exercise, to lower both glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in adults with type 2 diabetes and primary hyperlipidaemia, respectively. Furthermore, colesevelam has been shown to have similar glucose- and lipid-lowering efficacy in patients aged <65 years and those aged ≥65 years. Colesevelam was not associated with weight gain, was associated with a low incidence of hypoglycaemia, and can be safely combined with a broad range of glucose-lowering agents (metformin, sulfonylureas and insulin) and lipid-lowering statins. Currently, colesevelam is available in tablet form and as a powder for oral suspension formulation; the latter may be of benefit to elderly patients with swallowing difficulties. As colesevelam has both glucose- and lipid-lowering effects, its use may reduce the drug burden in elderly patients receiving multiple agents for glucose and lipid lowering. Colesevelam may be a valuable treatment option as an add-on to existing glucose- and/or lipid-lowering therapy to help improve haemoglobin A(1c) and to lower LDL-C levels in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes and primary hyperlipidaemia.
- SourceAvailable from: Stephen E Weis[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although cholesterol-reducing treatment has been shown to reduce fatal and nonfatal coronary disease in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), it is unknown whether benefit from the reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients without CHD extends to individuals with average serum cholesterol levels, women, and older persons. To compare lovastatin with placebo for prevention of the first acute major coronary event in men and women without clinically evident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease with average total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C levels and below-average high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Outpatient clinics in Texas. A total of 5608 men and 997 women with average TC and LDL-C and below-average HDL-C (as characterized by lipid percentiles for an age- and sex-matched cohort without cardiovascular disease from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] III). Mean (SD) TC level was 5.71 (0.54) mmol/L (221  mg/dL) (51 st percentile), mean (SD) LDL-C level was 3.89 (0.43) mmol/L (150  mg/dL) (60th percentile), mean (SD) HDL-C level was 0.94 (0.14) mmol/L (36  mg/dL) for men and 1.03 (0.14) mmol/L (40  mg/dL) for women (25th and 16th percentiles, respectively), and median (SD) triglyceride levels were 1.78 (0.86) mmol/L (158  mg/dL) (63rd percentile). Lovastatin (20-40 mg daily) or placebo in addition to a low-saturated fat, low-cholesterol diet. First acute major coronary event defined as fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or sudden cardiac death. After an average follow-up of 5.2 years, lovastatin reduced the incidence of first acute major coronary events (1 83 vs 116 first events; relative risk [RR], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-0.79; P<.001), myocardial infarction (95 vs 57 myocardial infarctions; RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.43-0.83; P=.002), unstable angina (87 vs 60 first unstable angina events; RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95; P=.02), coronary revascularization procedures (157 vs 106 procedures; RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.52-0.85; P=.001), coronary events (215 vs 163 coronary events; RR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61-0.92; P =.006), and cardiovascular events (255 vs 194 cardiovascular events; RR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62-0.91; P = .003). Lovastatin (20-40 mg daily) reduced LDL-C by 25% to 2.96 mmol/L (115 mg/dL) and increased HDL-C by 6% to 1.02 mmol/L (39 mg/dL). There were no clinically relevant differences in safety parameters between treatment groups. Lovastatin reduces the risk for the first acute major coronary event in men and women with average TC and LDL-C levels and below-average HDL-C levels. These findings support the inclusion of HDL-C in risk-factor assessment, confirm the benefit of LDL-C reduction to a target goal, and suggest the need for reassessment of the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines regarding pharmacological intervention.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 06/1998; 279(20):1615-22. · 29.98 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The increasing proportion of elderly persons in the global population, and the implications of this trend in terms of increasing rates of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, continue to be a cause for concern for clinicians and healthcare policy makers. The diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes in the elderly is challenging, as age-related changes alter the clinical presentation of diabetic symptoms. Once type 2 diabetes is diagnosed, the principles of its management are similar to those in younger patients, but with special considerations linked to the increased prevalence of co-morbidities and relative inability to tolerate the adverse effects of medication and hypoglycaemia. In addition, there are many underappreciated factors complicating diabetes care in the elderly, including cognitive disorders, physical disability and geriatric syndromes, such as frailty, urinary incontinence and pain. Available oral antihyperglycaemic drugs include insulin secretagogues (meglitinides and sulfonylureas), biguanides (metformin), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and thiazolidinediones. Unfortunately, as type 2 diabetes progresses in older persons, polypharmacy intensification is required to achieve adequate glycaemic control with the attendant increased risk of adverse effects as a result of age-related changes in drug metabolism. The recent introduction of the incretins, a group of intestinal peptides that enhance insulin secretion after ingestion of food, as novel oral antihyperglycaemic treatments may prove significant in older persons. The two main categories of incretin therapy currently available are: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues and inhibitors of GLP-1 degrading enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). The present review discusses the effect of aging on metabolic control in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, the current treatments used to treat this population and some of the more recent advances in the field of geriatric type 2 diabetes. In particular, we highlight the efficacy and safety of GLP-1 and DPP-4 inhibitors, administered as monotherapy or in combination with other oral antihyperglycaemic agents, especially when the relevant clinical trials included older persons. There is strong evidence that use of incretin therapy, in particular, the DPP-4 inhibitors, could offer significant advantages in older persons. Clinical evidence suggests that the DPP-4 inhibitors vildagliptin and sitagliptin are particularly suitable for frail and debilitated elderly patients because of their excellent tolerability profiles. Importantly, these agents lack the gastrointestinal effects seen with metformin and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors taken alone, and have a low risk of the hypoglycaemic events commonly seen with agents that directly lower blood glucose levels.Drugs & Aging 02/2008; 25(11):913-25. · 2.65 Impact Factor
- Circulation 01/2004; 108(23):2941-8. · 15.20 Impact Factor