Article

Continuous infusion in haemophilia: current practice in Europe.

Department of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, National Haemophilia Centre, University Hospital, Bratislava, Slovakia.
Haemophilia (Impact Factor: 3.17). 04/2012; 18(5):753-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2516.2012.02810.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Continuous infusion (CI) of factor VIII (FVIII) is an effective method for replacement therapy in haemophilia. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding association of CI with the development of inhibitors. The aim of this study was to gain information on the current practices in Europe regarding CI and the true inhibitor incidence after this mode of therapy. In a cross sectional study performed in 22 Comprehensive Care Centres (CCCs), we evaluated CI techniques, treatment protocols, efficacy, safety and complications of CI including inhibitors. Thirteen (59%) CCCs reported a total of 1079 CI treatments, given peri-operatively or for major bleeds, in 742 patients. Most centres used 'adjusted dose' CI aimed at median target FVIII level of 0.8 IU mL(-1). CI was haemostatically very effective with a low incidence of complications: median incidence of postoperative bleeding was 1.8%, six centres observed phlebitis in 2-11% of CI treatments. Only nine (1.2%) patients developed inhibitors (0.45% of 659 severe and 7.2% of 83 mild haemophilia patients). Additional analysis of inhibitor patients revealed several confounding factors (low number of prior FVIII exposure days, high steady-state factor levels during CI, high-risk genotype). In this unprecedentedly large cohort, CI treatment appears to be an effective and safe treatment that does not increase the risk of inhibitor development in patients with severe haemophilia. Thus, previous small case series reports suggesting that CI may increase inhibitors cannot be confirmed. Inhibitor risk in mild haemophilia could not be evaluated as the influence of other, potentially confounding, risk factors could not be excluded.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
61 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is known that a large number of both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk of inhibitor development, but underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are still under investigation. The clinical research on inhibitors towards factor VIII (FVIII) is challenged by the fact that this is an infrequent event occurring in a rare disease. Therefore, it is widely accepted that complementary studies involving animal models can provide important insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of this complication. In this respect, mouse models have been studied for clues to FVIII immunogenicity, natural history of immunity and for different approaches to primary and secondary tolerance induction. In the clinical setting, the type of FVIII product used and the occurrence of product switching are considered important factors which may have an influence on inhibitor development. The evaluation of data currently available in the literature does not prove unequivocally that a difference in the immunogenicity exists between particular FVIII products (e.g. recombinant vs. plasma-derived, full length vs. B-domainless). In addition, national products switches have occurred and, in this context, switching was not associated with an enhanced inhibitor risk. In contrast with severe haemophilia A, patients with moderate and mild haemophilia A receive FVIII treatment infrequently for bleeds or surgery. In this condition the inhibitor risk is low but remains present lifelong, requiring continuous vigilance, particularly after intensive FVIII exposure.
    Haemophilia 05/2014; 20(s4). · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bleeding disorders are broadly classified into primary and secondary hemostatic defects. Primary hemostatic disorders (disorders of platelets and von Willebrand factor) mainly result in mucocutaneous bleeding symptoms such as epistaxis, menorrhagia, petechiae, easy bruising, and bleeding after dental and surgical interventions. Secondary hemostatic disorders (congenital or acquired deficiencies of coagulation factors) typically manifest with delayed, deep bleeding into muscles and joints. This article provides a generalized overview of the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory abnormalities, and molecular basis of inherited abnormalities of coagulation with a focus on hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, and rare inherited coagulation disorders.
    Pediatric Clinics of North America 12/2013; 60(6):1419-41. · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study seeks to identify the delivery method of continuous infusion using a 250 cc IV bag via pump, change every 8 h. Additionally, the study will examine the infection risk with the use of 8 h infusions. Ten hemophilia A patients were identified for the study. Each patient received a bolus factorVIII (FVIII) infusion with a pre FVIII level and 1 h post FVIII level to determine recovery levels for optimal dosing. On the day of 8-h continuous infusion, the pt received a bolus VIII (Kogenate FS (™) ) for correction to 100% followed by individually calculated continuous infusion (Kogenate FS (™) ) FVIII. FVIII levels were drawn from the IV bag and peripherally from the patient in the opposite arm at time points: pre infusion, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 h. Additionally, blood cultures were drawn from the IV bag and from the IV tubing at time points pre infusion, 4 and 8 h. Fourteen subjects agreed to participate in the study; 4 failed to follow up, hence 10 subjects were included in the analysis of data; 7 severe, 2 moderate, and 1 mild hemophilia A. Age range was 26-62 years. Ethnic breakdown included 5 African American, 4 Caucasian, 1 Hispanic. With all infusions, the range of FVIII was 65-135% (blood) and 62-200% (bag). After the start of infusion, there were no significant differences noted between the hourly FVIII levels in the subjects and the IV values (P-value range 0.36-0.9). Additionally, given three time points with six cultures per patient, totaling 60 points of cultures drawn for the study, all cultures from the IV bag and patient were negative. The effective delivery method and safety of an 8-h continuous infusion of FVIII (Kogenate FS (™) ) has been confirmed. This method can be helpful given that many hospitals may not carry the required mini-pumps, allowing a standard safe delivery of FVIII (Kogenate FS (™) ) continuous infusion by available means.
    Haemophilia 11/2013; · 3.17 Impact Factor