Chapter

Towards Clinical Application of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Perspectives and Requirements for Orthopaedic Applications

In book: Tissue Regeneration - From Basic Biology to Clinical Application
Source: InTech
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    ABSTRACT: Current treatment strategies for the repair or replacement of bone use synthetic implants with stem cells and their progeny--a new approach to address unmet medical needs. This study has evaluated the effect of a silica-coated bioactive ceramic, namely HASi in comparison to hydroxyapatite (HA) on the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of goat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro in a prolonged culture of 28 days. The cellular activities were significantly enhanced on HASi signifying the role of silica to stimulate osteoblast cells. The fabrication of such a 'cell-ceramic construct using autologous MSCs' is aimed for the transplantation to a large bone defect site in the goat femur model which still remains a formidable challenge in Orthopedic surgery.
    Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 11/2008; 20 Suppl 1:S251-8. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for novel cell therapeutic applications. For clinical scale manufacturing, human factors from serum or platelets have been suggested as alternatives to fetal bovine serum (FBS). We have previously shown that pooled human serum (HS) and thrombin-activated platelet releasate in plasma (tPRP) support the expansion of adipose tissue-derived MSCs. Contradictory results with bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs have initiated a comprehensive comparison of HS, tPRP, and pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) and FBS in terms of their impact on MSC isolation, expansion, differentiation, and immunomodulatory activity. In addition to conventional Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, depletion of lineage marker expressing cells (RosetteSep) and CD271+ sorting were used for BM-MSC enrichment. Cells were cultured in medium containing either 10% FBS, HS, tPRP, or pHPL. Colony-forming units and cumulative population doublings were determined, and MSCs were maximally expanded. Although both HS and tPRP comparable to FBS supported isolation and expansion, pHPL significantly accelerated BM-MSC proliferation to yield clinically relevant numbers within the first two passages. MSC quality and functionality including cell surface marker expression, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, and immunosuppressive action were similar in MSCs from all culture conditions. Importantly, spontaneous cell transformation was not observed in any of the culture conditions. Telomerase activity was not detected in any of the cultures at any passage. In contrast to previous data from adipose tissue-derived MSCs, pHPL was found to be the most suitable FBS substitute in clinical scale BM-MSC expansion.
    Stem Cells 07/2009; 27(9):2331-41. · 7.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the kinetics of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after intravascular administration into SCID mouse cremaster vasculature by intravital microscopy. MSCs were injected into abdominal aorta through left femoral artery at two different concentrations (1 x 10(6) or 0.2 x 10(6) cell). Arterial blood velocity decrease by 60 and 18% 1 min after high/low dose MSCs injection respectively. The blood microcirculation was interrupted after 174+/-71 and 485+/-81 s. Intravital microscopy observation and histopathologic analysis of cremaster muscles indicated MSCs were entrapped in capillaries in both groups. 40 and 25% animals died of pulmonary embolism respectively in both high and low MSCs dose groups, which was detected by histopathologic analysis of the lungs. Intraarterial MSCs administration may lead to occlusion in the distal vasculature due to their relatively large cell size. Pulmonary sequestration may cause death in small laboratory animals. MSCs should be used cautiously for intravascular transplantation.
    Microvascular Research 03/2009; 77(3):370-6. · 2.93 Impact Factor

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