Ecallantide for treatment of acute hereditary angioedema attacks: analysis of efficacy by patient characteristics.

Division of Immunology, Children's Hospital Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings (Impact Factor: 2.19). 03/2012; 33(2):178-85. DOI: 10.2500/aap.2012.33.3528
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is characterized by episodic attacks of edema. HAE is caused by low levels of the protein C1 esterase inhibitor, which inhibits plasma kallikrein, the enzyme responsible for converting high-molecular-weight kininogen to bradykinin. Unregulated production of bradykinin leads to the characteristic clinical symptoms of swelling and pain. Ecallantide is a novel plasma kallikrein inhibitor effective for treatment of acute HAE attacks. This study was designed to analyze the efficacy of ecallantide for treating HAE attacks by attack location, attack severity, patient gender, and body mass index (BMI). An analysis of integrated data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of ecallantide for treatment of acute HAE attacks was undertaken. For the purpose of analysis, symptoms were classified by anatomic location and, for each location, by the patient-assessed severity of the attack. Efficacy versus placebo was examined using two validated patient-reported outcomes: treatment outcome score and mean symptom complex severity score. One hundred forty-three attacks were analyzed (73 ecallantide and 70 placebo). Ecallantide was equally effective in both male and female subjects. Ecallantide had decreased efficacy for patients with BMI > 30 kg/m(2). Ecallantide showed efficacy for treatment of severe and moderate attacks, and was effective for abdominal, internal head and neck, external head and neck, and cutaneous locations. In summary, ecallantide is effective for treatment of acute HAE attacks of different symptom locations and severity; outcomes were similar for men and women. However, the standard dose was less effective for obese patients.

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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare disorder associated with episodic attacks of well-demarcated angioedema. Attacks that affect the larynx can result in life-threatening airway obstruction. To examine efficacy and safety of ecallantide treatment for laryngeal HAE attacks. Data were combined from 4 clinical studies (EDEMA2, EDEMA3, EDEMA4, and DX-88/19) evaluating 30 mg of subcutaneous ecallantide for treatment of acute HAE attacks. Efficacy was assessed using 2 validated, HAE-specific, patient-reported outcome measures. The change in Mean Symptom Complex Severity (MSCS) score indicates change in symptom severity; a negative score indicates improvement. The calculated minimally important difference (MID) for change in severity is -0.30. The Treatment Outcome Score (TOS) measures treatment response. A positive score indicates improvement; the calculated MID is 30. Overall, 98 patients received ecallantide for 220 laryngeal attacks. The mean ± SD change in MSCS score was -1.1 ± 0.73 and -1.6 ± 0.68 at 4 and 24 hours, respectively. The mean ± SD TOS was 73.5 ± 35.8 and 85.5 ± 27.8 at 4 and 24 hours, respectively. Median time to significant improvement was 185 minutes (95% confidence interval, 167-226). One attack required intubation. Four treatment-emergent serious adverse events were reported, including 2 HAE attacks that resulted in hospitalization and 2 anaphylactic reactions. One of these reactions required treatment with epinephrine, but both patients recovered fully. There were no deaths. In this large attack series, ecallantide was effective for treatment of laryngeal HAE attacks. There is a risk of hypersensitivity, including anaphylaxis, consistent with product labeling. As such, ecallantide should be administered under the supervision of a health care professional. Identifiers: not applicable for EDEMA2 (trial was conducted before implementation of registration requirements); NCT00262080 for EDEMA3, NCT00457015 for EDEMA4, and NCT00456508 for DX-88/19.
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    ABSTRACT: Effective treatment of acute attacks is critical in managing hereditary angioedema (HAE). Ecallantide, a plasma kallikrein inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of HAE attacks. Occasionally, a second dose is needed when treating attacks of HAE. To evaluate the characteristics of HAE attacks requiring a second dose (dose B) of ecallantide. Data from all ecallantide clinical trials (EDEMA2, EDEMA4, and DX-88/19) that allowed an open-label dose B were included in this analysis. Patient and attack characteristics potentially predictive of dose B after ecallantide were analyzed by logistic regression. A multivariate model was built using a backward selection process, incorporating variables from the univariate model with P < .20 and removing factors with the highest P value until only significant (P < .05) factors remained. The analysis included 732 ecallantide-treated HAE attacks in 179 patients. Dose B was required in 88 attacks (12.0%), most (80.5%) for incomplete response. By attack location, 31 of 325 abdominal attacks (9.5%), 17 of 158 laryngeal attacks (10.8%), and 40 of 242 peripheral attacks (16.5%) required dose B. On the basis of the univariate analysis, baseline severity (odds ratio = 1.33, P = .15) and peripheral attack (odds ratio = 1.80, P = .01) were identified as potential predictive factors; abdominal attacks had an inverse correlation (odds ratio = 0.64, P = .055). However, the multivariate analysis identified only peripheral attacks as statistically significantly correlated (P < .05) with dose B requirement. A single, 30-mg dose of ecallantide was effective for most HAE attacks (88.0%). Patients with peripheral attacks of HAE were more likely to require a second dose of ecallantide after 4 hours. Identifiers: not applicable for EDEMA2 (trial was conducted before registration requirements were implemented), NCT00457015 for EDEMA4, and NCT00456508 for DX-88/19.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Bradykinin-mediated angioedema is characterized by subcutaneous and/or submucosal edema formation without wheals and pruritus. It is linked to bradykinin-enhanced vascular permeability and, therefore, it does not respond to conventional measures, but requires specific therapy. Areas covered: This summary briefly reviews the different types of bradykinin-mediated angioedema and its remedies. Therapy focuses on relieving edema, as well as on decreasing its incidence and severity. The modes of the actions of attenuated androgens and antifibrinolytics are not precisely known - these agents have been introduced on an empirical basis. Contemporary treatments, by contrast, have been purposely developed to inhibit bradykinin. Most experience pertains to angioedema resulting from C1-inhibitor deficiency, and the controlled studies have focused on the hereditary form of this disease type (HAE). The pathomechanisms of HAE with normal C1-inhibitor activity, as well as of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-releated, and of non-histaminergic idiopathic sporadic angioedemas are largely unknown. Appropriate laboratory methods for the diagnosis, or specific interventions for the therapy of these conditions are not available or only available off-label. Expert opinion: In this case, diagnosis and management are challenging. The range of targeted therapeutic options has increased in recent years and includes measures to handle emergencies, prevent edematous episodes and manage additional types of bradykinin-mediated angioedema.
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