Prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in antiretroviral therapy naïve HIV-positive patients and the impact on treatment outcomes--a retrospective study from a large urban cohort in Johannesburg, South Africa.
ABSTRACT Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is associated with advanced HIV disease and may be a complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART) or anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs, specifically isoniazid (INH). The effect of non-ART-drug-related PN on treatment outcomes is yet to be determined. We analysed prospectively collected cohort data for HIV-infected ART-naive adults initiating ART at the Themba Lethu Clinic, Johannesburg, South Africa from June 2004 to June 2009. Patients who presented with signs and symptoms of numbness or dysesthesia prior to initiation of ART were defined as having PN. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the effect of PN alone (HIV-related PN) or PN with a history of INH use (TB-related PN) on mortality, lost to follow-up (LTFU), persistent and recurrent PN by 12 months of follow-up. Of the 9,399 patients initiating ART, 3.9 % had HIV-related PN while a further 1.8 % had TB-related PN. Patients with PN did not have a significantly higher risk of mortality compared to those without PN (hazard ratio (HR) 1.17 95 % CI 0.92-1.49). Patients with TB-related PN were less likely to be LTFU by 12 months (HR 0.65 95 % CI 0.44-0.97) compared to those without PN. Patients with HIV-related PN were at increased risk of persistent PN at 3 months post-ART initiation. Patients with HIV-related PN had a similar risk of recurrent PN compared to those with TB-related PN (HR 1.28 95 % CI 0.72-2.27). We demonstrate that patients with PN at initiation of ART present with advanced HIV disease. Completion of TB treatment may reduce the risk of persistent PN in patients with TB-related PN. Use of HIV drugs, even neurotoxic ones, may overall limit neuropathy.
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ABSTRACT: HIV infection is associated with a painful distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) that can severely limit the quality of life of affected subjects. The pathogenesis of DSP is unknown, although both HIV proteins and products of immune activation triggered by HIV infection have been implicated. To assess the association between baseline markers of immune activation and HIV RNA levels (viral load) and time to symptomatic DSP (SDSP). A cohort of 376 subjects, most receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), were followed semiannually for up to 48 months. Blood and CSF levels of HIV viral load, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), matrix metalloproteinase-2, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were measured in addition to CD4 lymphocyte cell count. In subjects without SDSP at baseline (62.5% of the cohort), among the virologic and immunologic markers, only baseline CSF M-CSF levels were associated with time to SDSP (hazard ratio = 2.97, p = 0.05). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the 1-year incidence of SDSP was 21%, a 15% decrease from that observed in the Dana cohort, a pre-HAART cohort enrolled with the same inclusion/exclusion criteria. Highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) has changed the natural history of HIV-associated symptomatic distal sensory polyneuropathy (SDSP), which may explain, in contrast with studies from the pre-HAART era, the lack of association between SDSP and baseline HIV viral load and CD4 cell count.Neurology 04/2005; 64(5):842-8. · 8.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HIV is known to affect the epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis and natural history of HCV infection whilst studies on the effects of HCV on HIV have shown conflicting results and are confounded by the influence of intravenous drug use and antiretroviral therapy. This study was conducted in KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa where HIV is predominantly a sexually transmitted infection. Intravenous drug use is rare in this region and the study population was naïve to antiretroviral therapy. For this study, specimens from selected sentinel sites submitted to a central laboratory for routine HIV testing were screened for anti-HCV IgG antibodies. HIV positive HCV-positive patients were compared to HIV-positive HCV-negative patients in a subgroup of patients within this cohort in order to determine if HCV sero-prevalence was associated with clinical outcomes in a linked anonymous retrospective chart survey. The prevalence of HCV was 6.4% and that of HIV, 40.2% (n = 1,937). There was a significantly higher prevalence of HCV among HIV infected patients as compared to HIV negative patients (13.4% vs. 1.73% respectively) (n = 1,937, P < 0.001). HCV-HIV co-infected patients had significantly increased mortality (8.3 vs. 21%) (n = 162, P < 0.02). A significant association was found between HCV serostatus and abnormal urea levels (15.4 vs. 7.3 mmol/L, n = 134, P < 0.001) and creatinine levels (252.2 vs. 144.4 micromol/L, n = 134, P < 0.01). This study has found that hepatitis C co-infection is more common in HIV positive individuals and is associated with an increased mortality and renal morbidity.Journal of Medical Virology 09/2008; 80(9):1530-6. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is effective in suppressing systemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load and has decreased mortality rates and the incidence of systemic opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Multiple studies now suggest that the incidence rates of HIV-associated neurological disease and central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic infections also are decreasing. Since the introduction of HAART in 1996, the incidence of HIV dementia has decreased by approximately 50%. The mean CD4 cell count for new cases of HIV dementia is increasing, but it remains as a complication of moderate-advanced immunosuppression. The incidence of HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy has decreased, although the incidence of antiretroviral drug-induced toxic neuropathy has increased. However, as patients with AIDS live longer as a result of HAART, the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in HIV-seropositive patients may be increasing. The incidence rates of CNS opportunistic infections (cryptococcal meningitis, toxoplasmosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy) and primary CNS lymphoma have decreased since the introduction of HAART. As patients develop increasing resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs and with subsequent decline in CD4 cell counts, in the near future, the incidence of HIV-associated neurological disease may begin to rise.Journal of NeuroVirology 01/2003; 8 Suppl 2:115-21. · 2.85 Impact Factor