Prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in antiretroviral therapy naïve HIV-positive patients and the impact on treatment outcomes--a retrospective study from a large urban cohort in Johannesburg, South Africa.
ABSTRACT Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is associated with advanced HIV disease and may be a complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART) or anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs, specifically isoniazid (INH). The effect of non-ART-drug-related PN on treatment outcomes is yet to be determined. We analysed prospectively collected cohort data for HIV-infected ART-naive adults initiating ART at the Themba Lethu Clinic, Johannesburg, South Africa from June 2004 to June 2009. Patients who presented with signs and symptoms of numbness or dysesthesia prior to initiation of ART were defined as having PN. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the effect of PN alone (HIV-related PN) or PN with a history of INH use (TB-related PN) on mortality, lost to follow-up (LTFU), persistent and recurrent PN by 12 months of follow-up. Of the 9,399 patients initiating ART, 3.9 % had HIV-related PN while a further 1.8 % had TB-related PN. Patients with PN did not have a significantly higher risk of mortality compared to those without PN (hazard ratio (HR) 1.17 95 % CI 0.92-1.49). Patients with TB-related PN were less likely to be LTFU by 12 months (HR 0.65 95 % CI 0.44-0.97) compared to those without PN. Patients with HIV-related PN were at increased risk of persistent PN at 3 months post-ART initiation. Patients with HIV-related PN had a similar risk of recurrent PN compared to those with TB-related PN (HR 1.28 95 % CI 0.72-2.27). We demonstrate that patients with PN at initiation of ART present with advanced HIV disease. Completion of TB treatment may reduce the risk of persistent PN in patients with TB-related PN. Use of HIV drugs, even neurotoxic ones, may overall limit neuropathy.
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ABSTRACT: Challenges to HIV care in resource limited settings (RLS) include malnutrition. Limited evidence supports the benefit of nutritional supplementation when starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in RLS. Randomized controlled pilot study. HIV-positive ART-naive adults with self-reported weight loss were randomized to receive ART plus FutureLife porridge(R) nutritional supplement (NS) (388 kcal/day) or ART alone (Controls) for 6 months. Patients returned for monthly assessments and blood was drawn at enrolment and 6 months on ART. Differences in body composition, biochemical and laboratory parameters were estimated at 6 months on treatment. Of the 36 randomized patients, 26 completed the 6 month follow-up (11 NS vs 15 Controls). At enrolment, groups were similar in terms of age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and bioelectrical impedance. NS patients had a lower median CD4 count (60 cells/mm3 [IQR 12--105 vs 107 cells/mm3 [IQR 63--165]; p = 0.149) and haemoglobin (10.3 g/dL [IQR 9.0-11.3] vs 13.1 g/dL [IQR 11.1-14.7]; p = 0.001).At 6 months, NS patients increased their median CD4 count by 151 cells/mm3 [IQR 120--174) vs 77 cells/mm3 [IQR 33--145] in the Controls. NS patients had higher mean percentage change in body weight (12.7% vs 4.9%; p = 0.047), BMI (7.8% vs 5.5%; p = 0.007), absolute CD4 count (83.0% vs 46.4%, p = 0.002) and hemoglobin (9.5% vs 1.0%; p = 0.026). Patients in the NS arm had a higher mean percentage fat-free mass (16.7% vs -3.5%, p = 0.036), total body water (13.0% vs -1.9%, p = 0.026), intracellular water (16.1% vs -4.1%, p = 0.010) and basal metabolic rate (5.3% vs -0.2%, p = 0.014) compared to Controls. Patients in the NS arm also showed an improvement in physical activity at 6 months post-ART initiation compared to Controls (p = 0.037). Preliminary results are encouraging and suggest that NS taken concurrently with ART can promote weight gain, improve immune response and improve physical activity in HIV-positive patients that present at ART initiation with weight loss.Nutrition Journal 08/2013; 12(1):111. · 2.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy (PN) which is the most common neurological complication of HIV infection is under recognised and undertreated especially in resource limited settings. This ailment which has a negative impact on the quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients exists in different clinical patterns of which HIV-associated Sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is the most common affecting up to two thirds of patients with advanced disease in some settings. In Cameroon where HIV is a major public health problem, the burden of HIV-SN has not yet been well defined. METHODS: Using the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screening (BPNS) tool validated by the AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) we carried out a cross sectional study to determine the prevalence of HIV-SN and its associated factors among HIV-1 patients at the Douala General Hospital between 1st July and 31st October 2011. HIV-SN was defined as the presence of neuropathic symptoms and at least an abnormal perception of vibrations of a 128Hz tuning fork on the great toe or abnormal ankle reflexes or both and expressed as a percentage of the study population. RESULTS: Out of 295 patients studied, 21% had HIV-SN. In HIV-SN patients the median duration of HIV infection was 79.8months (IQR 46 -- 107.5) and their median CD4 count 153cells/muL (IQR 80 -- 280). Patient recall and clinical chart review showed that, 83.9% had neuropathic symptoms prior to HAART initiation and 16.1% after HAART initiation. Low CD4 count, history of alcohol intake and history of anti-tuberculosis treatment were strongly associated with HIV-SN (AOR 2.5, 2.8 and 2.9 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: HIV-SN is common among patients with advanced HIV infection in Cameroon. This simple diagnostic tool (BPNS) should therefore be routinely used to detect those with HIV-SN or at risk so as to minimise the negative impact it has on their quality of life.AIDS Research and Therapy 11/2012; 9(1):35. · 1.84 Impact Factor