Synthesis of galactooligosaccharides by CBD fusion β-galactosidase immobilized on cellulose.
ABSTRACT The β-galactosidase gene (bgaL3) was cloned from Lactobacillus bulgaricus L3 and fused with cellulose binding domain (CBD) using pET-35b (+) vector in Escherichia coli. The resulting fusion protein (CBD-BgaL3) was directly adsorbed onto microcrystalline cellulose with a high immobilization efficiency of 61%. A gram of cellulose was found to absorb 97.6 U of enzyme in the solution containing 100mM NaCl (pH 5.8) at room temperature for 20 min. The enzymatic and transglycosylation characteristics of the immobilized CBD-BgaL3 were similar to the free form. Using the immobilized enzyme as the catalyst, the yield of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) reached a maximum of 49% (w/w) from 400 g/L lactose (pH 7.6) at 45 °C for 75 min, with a high productivity of 156.8 g/L/h. Reusability assay was subsequently performed under the same reaction conditions. The immobilized enzyme could retain over 85% activity after twenty batches with the GOS yields all above 40%.
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ABSTRACT: The bifidobacterial β-galactosidase BbgIV was immobilised on DEAE-Cellulose and Q-Sepharose via ionic binding and on amino-ethyl- and glyoxal-agarose via covalent attachment, and was then used to catalyse the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides (GOS). The immobilisation yield exceeded 90% using ionic binding, while it was low using amino-ethyl agarose (25–28%) and very low using glyoxal agarose (<3%). This was due to the mild conditions and absence of chemical reagents in ionic binding, compared to covalent attachment. The maximum GOS yield obtained using DEAE-Cellulose and Q-Sepharose was similar to that obtained using free BbgIV (49–53%), indicating the absence of diffusion limitation and mass transfer issues. For amino-ethyl agarose, however, the GOS yield obtained was lower (42–44%) compared to that obtained using free BbgIV. All the supports tried significantly (P < 0.05) increased the BbgIV operational stability and the GOS synthesis productivity up to 55 °C. Besides, six successive GOS synthesis batches were performed using BbgIV immobilised on Q-Sepharose; all resulted in similar GOS yields, indicating the possibility of developing a robust synthesis process. Overall, the GOS synthesis operation performance using BbgIV was improved by immobilising the enzyme onto solid supports, in particular on Q-Sepharose.Biochemical Engineering Journal 01/2014; 82:188–199. DOI:10.1016/j.bej.2013.11.020 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thermoresistant, recombinant β-galactosidase from Thermotoga maritima was purified and immobilized on the surface of epoxy-coated magnetic beads. The enzyme, which has hexameric quaternary structure as shown by gel filtration chromatography, attaches to the resin through multiple covalent linkages that involve different subunits. The bound enzyme shows higher stability than the free form. The immobilized enzyme showed to be efficient for the hydrolysis of lactose and the biosynthesis of galactooligosaccharides (GOS). The chemical structure of synthesized GOS has been determined by NMR revealing that the main product was β-3'-galactosyl lactose. Although β-galactosidases from different sources have been used for the same purposes, the distinct advantage of the methodology described in this communication is that the enzyme can be easily produced, purified and immobilized in large quantities.World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (Formerly MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology) 10/2013; DOI:10.1007/s11274-013-1517-8 · 1.35 Impact Factor