Results of a phase II study of sirolimus and cyclophosphamide in patients with advanced sarcoma.
ABSTRACT Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been demonstrated in sarcoma. Trials using mTOR inhibitor in sarcoma have shown low objective response rates but progression-free survival (PFS) rates suggest cytostatic effects. The combination of sirolimus and cyclophosphamide demonstrated synergistic anti-sarcoma activity in preclinical models; therefore, we conducted a phase II trial of sirolimus and cyclophosphamide in patients with advanced sarcoma.
Patients received 4 mg sirolimus daily and 200mg cyclophosphamide d1-7 and 15-21 every 28 days. The primary objective was to estimate the 24-week PFS rate with a target of ≥ 25%. Patients were followed for World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria tumour response by imaging every 8 weeks. Serum levels of sirolimus, lipids and vascular endothelial growth factor were measured. Tumour tissue was analysed for mTOR, S6 ribosomal protein and cytochrome P450 3A4/5 by quantitative immunofluorescence.
Forty-nine eligible patients were enrolled from September 2008 to December 2009. Patients received a median of four cycles of therapy. Starting doses of drugs were tolerated in 79%. One patient achieved partial tumour response, 10 were progression-free for ≥ 24 weeks and two completed 12 cycles of treatment. Median PFS and overall survival (OS) were 3.4 and 9.9 months, respectively. Serious adverse events attributed to therapy occurred in 11% and included infection, pneumonitis and thrombosis. Hypertriglyceridaemia from treatment and lower tumour phosphorylated-mTOR are associated with longer survival.
Sirolimus and cyclophosphamide were tolerated by the majority of patients. About 20% of patients had stable sarcoma for at least 6 months but objective tumour response was infrequent.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The majority of patients with chondrosarcoma of bone have an excellent overall survival after local therapy. However, in case of unresectable locally advanced or metastatic disease the outcome is poor and limited treatment options exist. Therefore we conducted a survey of clinical phase I or II trials and retrospective studies that described systemic therapy for chondrosarcoma patients.Clinical sarcoma research. 01/2014; 4:11.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Synovial sarcoma is part of soft tissue sarcomas, an uncommon group of malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin. Unfortunately, a very limited number of useful drugs are active for most advanced synovial sarcoma. These tumors showed VEGF expression, and elevated serum VEGF levels correlate with higher histologic tumor grade. Inhibition of VEGFR was associated with tumor activity in preclinical models of synovial sarcoma and drugs such as sorafenib, pazopanib and bevacizumab have been employed in synovial sarcoma in monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapy. Other targets such as EGFR, HER2, IGFR-1R and mTOR have been exploited, but their inhibition by drugs such as gefitinib, trastuzumab, figitumumab, and temsirolimus, has not resulted in meaningful activity. Newer approaches include CXCR4 inhibition, immune-based therapies (NY-ESO-1), targeting epigenetic misregulation with HDAC inhibitors and targeting developmental pathways such Notch and Hedgehog. This review will summarize achievements and pitfalls of drugs against emerging therapeutic targets for synovial sarcoma.Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 03/2014; · 2.07 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Most anticancer therapies including immunotherapies are given systemically; yet therapies given directly into tumorsmay be more effective, particularly those that overcomenatural suppressive factors in the tumor microenvironment.The“TrojanHorse” approach of intratumoural delivery aims to promote immune-mediated destruction by inducing microenvironmental changes within the tumour at the same time as avoiding the systemic toxicity that is often associated with more “full frontal” treatments such as transfer of large numbers of laboratory-expanded tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes or large intravenous doses of cytokine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that intratumoural therapy has the capacity to minimizing local suppression, inducing sufficient “dangerous” tumor cell death to cross-prime strong immune responses, and rending tumor blood vessels amenable to immune cell traffic to induce effector cell changes in secondary lymphoid organs. However, the key to its success is the design of a sound rational approach based on evidence. There is compelling preclinical data for local immunotherapy approaches in tumor immunology. This review summarises how immune events within a tumour can be modified by local approaches, how this can affect systemic antitumor immunity such that distal sites are attacked, and what approaches have been proven most successful so far in animals and patients.Research Journal of Immunology 05/2014; 2014.