Longitudinal Trajectories of Metabolic Control Across Adolescence: Associations With Parental Involvement, Adolescents' Psychosocial Maturity, and Health Care Utilization

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
Journal of Adolescent Health (Impact Factor: 3.61). 05/2012; 50(5):491-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.09.007
Source: PubMed


To predict trajectories of metabolic control across adolescence from parental involvement and adolescent psychosocial maturity, and to link metabolic control trajectories to health care utilization.
Two hundred fifty-two adolescents (M age at study initiation = 12.5 years, SD = 1.5, range = 10-14 years) with type 1 diabetes (54.4% female, 92.8% Caucasian, length of diagnosis M = 4.7 years, SD = 3.0, range = 1-12 years) participated in a 2-year longitudinal study. Metabolic control was gathered from medical records every 3 months. Adolescents completed measures of self-reliance (functional autonomy and extreme peer orientation), self-control (self-control and externalizing behavior), and parental involvement in diabetes care (acceptance, monitoring, and frequency of help). At the end of the study, mothers reported health care utilization (diabetes-related emergency room visits and hospitalizations) over the past 6 months.
Latent class growth analyses indicated two distinct trajectories of metabolic control across adolescence: moderate control with slight deterioration (92% of the sample; average HbA1c = 8.18%) and poor control with rapid deterioration (8% of the sample; average HbA1c of 12.09%). Adolescents with poor and rapidly deteriorating metabolic control reported lower paternal monitoring and frequency of help with diabetes management, lower functional autonomy, and lower self-control than others. Those with poor and rapidly deteriorating metabolic control were 6.4 times more likely to report diabetes-related emergency room visits, and 9.3 times more likely to report diabetes-related hospitalizations near the end of the study.
Parental involvement and adolescents' psychosocial maturity predict patterns of deteriorating metabolic control across adolescence and could be targeted for intervention.

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    • "Second, T1D (Study 1) requires a strict daily treatment regimen, in contrast to CHD. Parents need to support adolescents in increasingly taking care of their diabetes (Seiffge-Krenke, 2001) and parental involvement in treatment management stays important throughout adolescence (King et al., 2012). Consequently, parental support might be more important in relation to daily functioning for adolescents with T1D than for adolescents with CHD. "
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    ABSTRACT: Research has consistently demonstrated that contextual support is crucial towards the psychological functioning of adolescents with chronic conditions. However, the literature has predominantly focused on parental support instead of adopting an integrated approach to parental and peer support. The present manuscript with two longitudinal studies in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes and congenital heart disease examined the extent to which different clusters of maternal, paternal, and peer support at baseline were related to well- and ill-being over time. In both studies, four clusters emerged: Combined support, Parental support, Peer support, and Lack of support. Follow-up longitudinal analyses indicated that especially Combined support from parents and peers proved to be of crucial importance towards psychological functioning. The present studies demonstrated the value of a typological approach for assessing social support in adolescents with chronic conditions. In addition to focusing on parental support, future research should assess peer support as well in these adolescents.
    Journal of Behavioral Medicine 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10865-015-9680-z. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    • "For youth with Type 1 diabetes, adolescence is also a crucial time during which problematic patterns of diabetes management can be established and persist into adulthood, yielding poor health outcomes (Kovacs, Goldston, Obrosky, & Iyengar, 1992). Prior cross-sectional and longitudinal studies indicate that parental involvement in the diabetes regimen and shared regimen responsibility are associated with better adherence, whereas conflict is associated with worse adherence (Anderson et al., 1997; Helgeson et al., 2008; King et al., 2012; Wiebe et al., 2005). Some prior studies have included youth across wide age ranges and from single-site samples and few have examined trajectories of autonomy support, family conflict, regimen responsibility, and BGMF among early adolescents. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Adolescence poses a number of special challenges for youth and their families managing the Type 1 diabetes medical regimen. Little is known on how family and youth factors and management of the regimen change over the course of early adolescence and predict adherence to the regimen during this developmental period. Methods: Youth with Type 1 diabetes (n = 239) and their maternal caregivers completed measures of diabetes-specific autonomy support, diabetes-related family conflict, regimen responsibility, and blood glucose monitoring frequency (BGMF) at 4 timepoints over a 3-year period. Results: Autonomy support and BGMF significantly decreased over time and responsibility for the diabetes regimen shifted from the caregiver toward youth over time. Significant changes in perceived family conflict over time differed depending on the reporter. Baseline BGMF, changes in caregiver autonomy support, and changes in responsibility for the regimen significantly predicted changes in BGMF over time. Conclusions: This study documents changes in autonomy support, youth responsibility for the diabetes regimen, and BGMF during the transition into early adolescence. Higher levels of caregiver autonomy support preserve BGMF during a developmental period in which BGMF typically deteriorates.
    Health Psychology 01/2014; 33(10). DOI:10.1037/hea0000034 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined whether emotional processing (understanding emotions), self-control (regulation of thoughts, emotions, and behavior), and their interaction predicted HbA1c for adolescents with type 1 diabetes over and above diabetes-specific constructs. Self-report measures of self-control, emotional processing, self-efficacy for diabetes management, diabetes-specific negative affect, and adherence, and HbA1c from medical records were obtained from 137 adolescents with type 1 diabetes (M age = 13.48 years). Emotional processing interacted with self-control to predict HbA1c, such that when adolescents had both low emotional processing and low self-control, HbA1c was poorest. Also, both high emotional processing and self-control buffered negative effects of low capacity in the other in relation to HbA1c. The interaction of emotional processing × self-control predicted HbA1c over diabetes-specific self-efficacy, negative affect, and adherence. These findings suggest the importance of emotional processing and self-control for health outcomes in adolescents with diabetes.
    Journal of Pediatric Psychology 04/2012; 37(8):925-34. DOI:10.1093/jpepsy/jss062 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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