Positive Effects of Soy Isoflavone Food on Survival of Breast Cancer Patients in China

Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical College, Hohhot, China.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP (Impact Factor: 2.51). 02/2012; 13(2):479-82. DOI: 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.479
Source: PubMed


Soy foods are the major source of isoflavones, which are believed to play important roles in genesis of breast cancer and its progression. We here conducted a prospective study to evaluate the association of soy isoflavone food consumption with breast cancer prognosis.
A prospective study was performed from January 2004 and January 2006 in China. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire to collect information on dietary habits and potential confounding factors. The relative risk [hazard ratio (HR)] and 95% CI were calculated from the Cox regression model for all significant predictors from cancer diagnosis to the endpoint of the study (event).
After a median follow up of 52.1 months (range, 9-60 months), a total of 79 breast cancer related deaths were recorded in our study, risk being inversely associated with a high intake of soy isoflavone. With an average intake of soy isoflavone above 17.3 mg/day, the mortality of breast cancer can be reduced by about 38-36%. We also found the decreased breast cancer death with high soy protein intake, with a HR (95% CI) of 0.71 (0.52-0.98). Stratified analysis with reference to the ER status, further demonstrated a better prognosis of ER positive breast cancer with a high intake of soy isoflavone (HR 0.59, 0.40-0.93).
Our study shows the soy food intake is associated with longer survival and low recurrence among breast cancer patients. A cohort study with a larger sample size and long term follow-up is now needed.

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    • "The total number ranges from 524 to 5042. Three of them (Guha et al., 2009; Kang et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2012) were hospital-based and one (Shu et al., 2009) was community-based, and the last one (Caan et al., 2011) was unclear. The median follow-up ranged from 3.9 years to 7.3 years. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Data on associations between soy food intake after cancer diagnosis with breast cancer survival are conflicting, so we conducted this meta-analysis for more accurate evaluation. Methods: Comprehensive searches were conducted to find cohort studies of the relationship between soy food intake after cancer diagnosis and breast cancer survival. Data were analyzed with comprehensive meta-analysis software. Results: Five cohort studies (11,206 patients) were included. Pooling all comparisons, soy food intake after diagnosis was associated with reduced mortality (HR 0.85, 95%CI 0.77 0.93) and recurrence (HR 0.79, 95%CI 0.72 0.87). Pooling the comparisons of highest vs. lowest dose, soy food intake after diagnosis was again associated with reduced mortality (HR 0.84, 95%CI 0.71 0.99) and recurrence (HR 0.74, 95%CI 0.64 0.85). Subgroup analysis of ER status showed that soy food intake was associated with reduced mortality in both ER negative (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.75, 95%CI 0.64 0.88) and ER positive patients (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.72, 95%CI 0.61 0.84), and both premenopausal (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.78, 95%CI 0.69 0.88) and postmenopausal patients (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.81, 95%CI 0.73 0.91). In additioin, soy food intake was associated with reduced recurrence in ER negative (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.64, 95%CI 0.44 0.94) and ER+/PR+ (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.65, 95%CI 0.49 0.86), and postmenopausal patients (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.67, 95%CI 0.56 0.80). Conclusion: Our meta- analysis showed that soy food intake might be associated with better survival, especially for ER negative, ER+/ PR+, and postmenopausal patients.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 04/2013; 14(4):2407-2412. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2407 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    • "The mechanism of breast carcinogenesis is still not fully understood. Breast cancer may result from multiple environmental, dietary, hereditary, racial and socioeconomic risk factors (Ronco et al., 2012a; Ronco et al., 2012b; Zhang et al., 2012; Zhou et al., 2012a; Zhou et al., 2012b; Shamsi et al., 2013; Sun et al., 2013). Angiogenesis is an important step in the development of cancer and is necessary for primary tumor growth, invasiveness, and metastasis (Ferrara et al., 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent regulator of angiogenesis and thereby involved in the development and progression of solid tumours. Associations between three VEGF gene polymorphisms (-634 G/C, +936 C/T, and +1612 G/A) and breast cancer risk have been extensively studied, but the currently available results are inconclusive. Our aim was to investigate associations between three VEGF gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in Chinese Han patients. We performed a hospital-based case-control study including 680 female incident breast cancer patients and 680 female age-matched healthy control subjects. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was performed to detect the three VEGF gene polymorphisms. We observed that women carriers of +936 TT genotypes [odds ratio (OR) =0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.28, 0.76; P=0.002] or 936 T-allele (OR=0.81, 95% CI= 0.68, 0.98; P=0.03) had a protective effect concerning the disease. Our study suggested that the +1612G/A polymorphism was unlikely to be associated with breast cancer risk. The -634CC genotype was significantly associated with high tumor aggressiveness [large tumor size (OR=2.63, 95% CI=1.15, 6.02; P=0.02) and high histologic grade (OR=1.47, 95% CI= 1.06, 2.03; P=0.02)]. The genotypes were not related with other tumor characteristics such as regional or distant metastasis, stage at diagnosis, or estrogen or progesterone receptor status. Our study revealed that the VEGF -634 G/C and +936 C/T gene polymorphisms may be associated with breast cancer in Chinese Han patients.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 04/2013; 14(4):2433-2437. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2433 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Soy foods have been suggested to have both positive health benefits and potentially adverse effects as a result of their content of phytoestrogens. However, studies on the estrogenicity of soy foods are lacking. Here we directly compared the effects of soy protein isolate (SPI), the protein in soy infant formula, with those of 17β-estradiol (E2), on global gene expression profiles and morphology in the female rat mammary gland. Rats were fed AIN-93G diets containing casein or SPI beginning on postnatal d 30. Rats were ovariectomized on postnatal d 50 and treated with 5 μg/kg/d E2 or vehicle for 14 d. Microarray analysis revealed that E2 treatment altered expression of 780 genes more than or equal to 2-fold (P < 0.05), whereas SPI feeding altered expression of only 53 genes more than or equal to 2-fold. Moreover, the groups had only 10 genes in common to increase more than or equal to 2-fold. The combination of SPI feeding and E2 altered expression of 422 genes and reversed E2 effects on many mRNAs, including those involved in the c-myc signaling pathway, cyclin D1, and Ki67. ERα binding to its response element on the Tie-2/Tek and progesterone receptor promoters was increased by E2, but not SPI, and this promoter binding was suppressed by the combination of E2 + SPI for the Tie-2/Tek promoter but increased for the progesterone receptor promoter (P < 0.05). SPI reduced the ratio of epithelial to fat pad area and E2 + SPI reduced both epithelial and fat pad area (P < 0.05). These data suggest that SPI is only minimally estrogenic in the rat mammary gland even in the absence of endogenous estrogens.
    Endocrinology 10/2012; 153(12). DOI:10.1210/en.2012-1591 · 4.50 Impact Factor
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