Positive Effects of Soy Isoflavone Food on Survival of Breast Cancer Patients in China

Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical College, Hohhot, China.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP (Impact Factor: 2.51). 02/2012; 13(2):479-82. DOI: 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.479
Source: PubMed


Soy foods are the major source of isoflavones, which are believed to play important roles in genesis of breast cancer and its progression. We here conducted a prospective study to evaluate the association of soy isoflavone food consumption with breast cancer prognosis.
A prospective study was performed from January 2004 and January 2006 in China. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire to collect information on dietary habits and potential confounding factors. The relative risk [hazard ratio (HR)] and 95% CI were calculated from the Cox regression model for all significant predictors from cancer diagnosis to the endpoint of the study (event).
After a median follow up of 52.1 months (range, 9-60 months), a total of 79 breast cancer related deaths were recorded in our study, risk being inversely associated with a high intake of soy isoflavone. With an average intake of soy isoflavone above 17.3 mg/day, the mortality of breast cancer can be reduced by about 38-36%. We also found the decreased breast cancer death with high soy protein intake, with a HR (95% CI) of 0.71 (0.52-0.98). Stratified analysis with reference to the ER status, further demonstrated a better prognosis of ER positive breast cancer with a high intake of soy isoflavone (HR 0.59, 0.40-0.93).
Our study shows the soy food intake is associated with longer survival and low recurrence among breast cancer patients. A cohort study with a larger sample size and long term follow-up is now needed.

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    • "The total number ranges from 524 to 5042. Three of them (Guha et al., 2009; Kang et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2012) were hospital-based and one (Shu et al., 2009) was community-based, and the last one (Caan et al., 2011) was unclear. The median follow-up ranged from 3.9 years to 7.3 years. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Data on associations between soy food intake after cancer diagnosis with breast cancer survival are conflicting, so we conducted this meta-analysis for more accurate evaluation. Methods: Comprehensive searches were conducted to find cohort studies of the relationship between soy food intake after cancer diagnosis and breast cancer survival. Data were analyzed with comprehensive meta-analysis software. Results: Five cohort studies (11,206 patients) were included. Pooling all comparisons, soy food intake after diagnosis was associated with reduced mortality (HR 0.85, 95%CI 0.77 0.93) and recurrence (HR 0.79, 95%CI 0.72 0.87). Pooling the comparisons of highest vs. lowest dose, soy food intake after diagnosis was again associated with reduced mortality (HR 0.84, 95%CI 0.71 0.99) and recurrence (HR 0.74, 95%CI 0.64 0.85). Subgroup analysis of ER status showed that soy food intake was associated with reduced mortality in both ER negative (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.75, 95%CI 0.64 0.88) and ER positive patients (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.72, 95%CI 0.61 0.84), and both premenopausal (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.78, 95%CI 0.69 0.88) and postmenopausal patients (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.81, 95%CI 0.73 0.91). In additioin, soy food intake was associated with reduced recurrence in ER negative (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.64, 95%CI 0.44 0.94) and ER+/PR+ (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.65, 95%CI 0.49 0.86), and postmenopausal patients (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.67, 95%CI 0.56 0.80). Conclusion: Our meta- analysis showed that soy food intake might be associated with better survival, especially for ER negative, ER+/ PR+, and postmenopausal patients.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 04/2013; 14(4):2407-2412. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2407 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    • "The mechanism of breast carcinogenesis is still not fully understood. Breast cancer may result from multiple environmental, dietary, hereditary, racial and socioeconomic risk factors (Ronco et al., 2012a; Ronco et al., 2012b; Zhang et al., 2012; Zhou et al., 2012a; Zhou et al., 2012b; Shamsi et al., 2013; Sun et al., 2013). Angiogenesis is an important step in the development of cancer and is necessary for primary tumor growth, invasiveness, and metastasis (Ferrara et al., 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent regulator of angiogenesis and thereby involved in the development and progression of solid tumours. Associations between three VEGF gene polymorphisms (-634 G/C, +936 C/T, and +1612 G/A) and breast cancer risk have been extensively studied, but the currently available results are inconclusive. Our aim was to investigate associations between three VEGF gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in Chinese Han patients. We performed a hospital-based case-control study including 680 female incident breast cancer patients and 680 female age-matched healthy control subjects. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was performed to detect the three VEGF gene polymorphisms. We observed that women carriers of +936 TT genotypes [odds ratio (OR) =0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.28, 0.76; P=0.002] or 936 T-allele (OR=0.81, 95% CI= 0.68, 0.98; P=0.03) had a protective effect concerning the disease. Our study suggested that the +1612G/A polymorphism was unlikely to be associated with breast cancer risk. The -634CC genotype was significantly associated with high tumor aggressiveness [large tumor size (OR=2.63, 95% CI=1.15, 6.02; P=0.02) and high histologic grade (OR=1.47, 95% CI= 1.06, 2.03; P=0.02)]. The genotypes were not related with other tumor characteristics such as regional or distant metastasis, stage at diagnosis, or estrogen or progesterone receptor status. Our study revealed that the VEGF -634 G/C and +936 C/T gene polymorphisms may be associated with breast cancer in Chinese Han patients.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 04/2013; 14(4):2433-2437. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2433 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Meta-analyses of epidemiological studies of soy consumption and breast cancer risk have demonstrated modest protective effects, usually attributed to isoflavones. Concern has been expressed, however, that the estrogenic activity of isoflavones may have adverse effects on breast cancer recurrence. The review covers epidemiological studies that have investigated the impact of soy consumption in breast cancer patients on recurrence and mortality. There are preliminary data to suggest that soy has differential effects on recurrence in human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative tumours. Recent studies on mechanisms of action of soy in breast cancer provide insights into epigenetic effects and the interaction of isoflavones with IGF-1 and with a number of polymorphisms of genes associated with breast cancer risk such as MDM2 and CYP1B1. Overall, these studies indicate that soy foods consumed at levels comparable to those in Asian populations have no detrimental effects on risk of breast cancer recurrence and in some cases significantly reduce the risk. Importantly, soy does not appear to interfere with tamoxifen or anastrozole therapy. Recent research suggests that women who are at increased risk of breast cancer due to polymorphisms in genes associated with the disease may especially benefit from high soy isoflavone intake.
    11/2012; 15(6):586-91. DOI:10.1097/MCO.0b013e328359156f
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