Antegrade versus retrograde cerebral protection in repair of acute ascending aortic dissection.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare retrograde with antegrade cerebral protection during acute aortic dissection repair using cerebral oximetry measurements. Fifty consecutive acute ascending aortic dissection repairs were analyzed. Cerebral oximetry data were collected for 41 of 50. Eight patients who had antegrade cerebral protection alone and 29 of 41 had retrograde cerebral protection alone. The per cent change in cerebral oximetry values during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest from baseline and from prearrest values was compared for the two groups using Student t test. The per cent change from baseline for the antegrade patients was: right 13.8 per cent and left -2.5 per cent; the per cent change from baseline for retrograde patients was: right 0.8 per cent and left 0.2 per cent (P values 0.216 and 0.725, respectively). The per cent change from the prearrest value for the antegrade patients was: right -12 per cent and left -15 per cent; the per cent change from prearrest for retrograde patients was: right -15 per cent and left -16 per cent (P values 0.514 and 0.956, respectively). No compelling evidence for an advantage to either antegrade or retrograde cerebral perfusion was detected. Further study with a focus on neurologic outcomes is warranted.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) has been employed to protect the brain during cardiovascular surgery, requiring temporary hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA). However, the protocol used for RCP remains to be modified if prolonged HCA is expected. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a modified protocol for this purpose. METHODS: After establishment of HCA at 15°C, 14 pigs were subjected to 90-min RCP using either the conventional protocol (i.e. alpha-stat strategy, 25-mmHg perfusion pressure and occluded inferior vena cava, Group I, n = 7) or the new protocol (i.e. pH-stat strategy, 40-mmHg perfusion pressure and unoccluded inferior vena cava, Group II, n = 7). After being rewarmed to 37°C, pigs were perfused for another 60 min. Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to track the changes of brain high-energy phosphates [i.e. adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine (PCr)] and intracellular pH (pHi). At the end, brain water content was measured. RESULTS: During RCP, high-energy phosphates decreased in both groups, whereas adenosine triphosphate decreased much faster in Group I (10.4 ± 4.3 vs 30.4 ± 4.4% of the baseline, P = 0.007, 60-min RCP). After rewarming, the recovery of high-energy phosphates and pHi was much slower in Group I (PCr: 55.7 ± 9.1 vs 78.4 ± 5.1% of the baseline, P = 0.046; adenosine triphosphate: 26.6 ± 10.6 vs 64.8 ± 4.6% of the baseline, P = 0.007; pHi: 6.5 ± 0.4 vs 7.1 ± 0.1, P = 0.021 at 30-min normothermic perfusion after rewarming). Brain tissue water content was significantly higher in Group I (81.1 ± 0.4 vs 79.5 ± 0.4%, P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Application of the modified RCP protocol significantly improved cerebral energy conservation during HCA and accelerated energy recovery after rewarming.European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 09/2012; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Near-infrared cerebral oximetry increasingly is used for monitoring during cardiac surgery. Nonetheless, the scientific basis for incorporating this technology into clinical practice, the indications for when to do so, and standard diagnostic and treatment algorithms for defining abnormal values are yet to be rigorously defined. The authors hypothesized that there would be (1) variation in clinical use and practices for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and (2) variation in management of patients when clinicians are provided with NIRS information. In order to test this hypothesis, they sought to assess the nature and strength of response heterogeneity among anesthesiologists and cardiac perfusionists when provided with cardiac surgery patient scenarios and cerebral oximetry data. A prospectively collected survey. A hospital-based, multi-institutional, multinational study. By e-mail, the authors surveyed the membership of the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists and the online Cardiovascular Perfusion Forum. This survey was focused on ascertaining what actions clinicians would take in each scenario, given case information and cerebral oximetry tracings. Questions were based on 11 patient scenarios selected to represent small, large, symmetric, or asymmetric decreases in measured regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) encountered during cardiac surgery. Information on the respondents' (n = 796; 73% anesthesiologists) clinical practice, demography, and cerebral oximetry utilization was collected. An index of dispersion was used to assess response heterogeneity overall and within demographic subgroups. The majority of respondents indicated that cerebral oximetry monitoring was either useful or an essential monitor, especially perfusionists and clinicians who used cerebral oximetry most frequently. There were marked differences in responses between perfusionists and anesthesiologists for 4 of the 6 scenarios (p<0.005 for each of these 4 scenarios) occurring during cardiopulmonary bypass. Scenarios having greatest rScO2 reduction or asymmetry in rScO2 were associated with the highest dispersion, indicating least agreement in management. Scenarios with mild or moderate rScO2 reduction were associated with the lowest dispersion, indicating greater agreement in management. Although experimental data gradually are accumulating to support the role for cerebral oximetry monitoring during cardiac surgery, the results of the present survey support the view that its role remains poorly defined, and consensus for its appropriate use is lacking. Importantly, the authors observed marked variation in the use, perceived utility, and management of patients for 4 of the 6 CPB scenarios between perfusionists and anesthesiologists who share the management of CPB. These findings support the need for well-designed, adequately-powered clinical trials examining the value of this technology.Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 10/2013; · 1.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our objective was to determine if antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) and retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) combined with deep hypothermia circulatory arrest in aortic arch surgery results in different mortality and neurologic outcomes. The Cochrane Library, Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Chinese Biomedical Database were searched for studies reporting on postoperative strokes, permanent neurologic dysfunction, temporary neurologic dysfunction, and all causes mortality within 30 days postoperation in aortic arch surgery. Meta-analysis for effect size, t test, and I(2) for detecting heterogeneity and sensitivity analysis for assessing the relative influence of each study was performed. Fifteen included studies encompassed a total of 5060 patients of whom 2855 were treated with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest plus ACP and 1897 were treated with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest plus RCP. Pooled analysis showed no significant statistical difference (P > .01) of 30-day mortality, permanent neurologic dysfunction, and transient neurologic dysfunction in the 2 groups. Before sensitivity analysis, postoperative stroke incidence in the ACP group was higher than in the RCP group (7.2% vs 4.7%; P < .01). After a study that included a different percentage of patients with a history of central neurologic events in the 2 groups was ruled out, postoperative stroke incidence in the 2 groups also showed no significant statistical difference (P > .01). ACP and RCP provide similar cerebral protective effectiveness combined with deep hypothermia circulatory arrest and could be selected according to the actual condition in aortic arch surgery. A high-quality randomized controlled trial is urgently needed to confirm this conclusion, especially for stroke morbidity following ACP or RCP.The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 12/2013; · 3.41 Impact Factor