Occurrence and Distribution of Antibiotics in the Beibu Gulf, China: Impacts of River Discharge and Aquaculture Activities

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong Province, China.
Marine environmental research (Impact Factor: 2.76). 04/2012; 78:26-33. DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2012.03.007
Source: PubMed


The occurrence and distribution of eleven selected antibiotics belonging to three groups were investigated in the Beibu Gulf. In addition, the potential effects of water discharged from four rivers and aquaculture activities were analyzed. Erythromycin-H₂O, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim were the most frequently detected compounds, with mean concentrations ranging from 0.51 to 6.30 ng L⁻¹. The concentrations of the rivers were generally higher than those of the gulf, implying that river discharge has an important effect on the Beibu Gulf. The concentrations of erythromycin-H₂O, sulfamethoxazole and sulfadimidine in the vicinity of aquaculture activities were higher, suggesting that a higher intensity of aquaculture activities could contribute to increasing levels of antibiotics in the environment. According to MEC (measured environmental concentration)/PNEC (predicted no-effect concentration), erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole and clarithromycin may present possible environmental risk to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Synechococcus leopoliensis and P. subcapitata, respectively; therefore, attention should be given to the long-term ecological effects caused by the continuous discharge of antibiotics in the Beibu Gulf.

Download full-text


Available from: Ruijie Zhang, Dec 18, 2013
106 Reads
  • Source
    • "The increased stocking densities, lack of sanitary barriers and failure to isolate aquaculture base units with infected animals have raised the possibility of rapid spreading of infection. Consequently , the use of prophylactic (disease prevention) and therapeutic (disease treatment) antibiotics has augmented worldwide, often to compensate the lack of adequate sanitary practices (Zheng et al. 2012; Sapkota et al. 2008). Antibiotics are then used to kill bacteria or inhibit their growth. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The growing demand for fish products and the dwindling productivity of marine fish stocks due to the overexploitation of fisheries place the aquaculture industry as a key contributor to the global fish supply. The intensive development of aquaculture has raised a range of environmental concerns such as effluent discharge, excessive use of resources and dependence on commercial feed. In this context, the development of sustainable aquaculture systems is becoming the cornerstone for long-term aquaculture expansion, and to achieve environmental sustainability. Integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) is regarded as a suitable approach to limit aquaculture nutrients and organic matter outputs through biomitigation. The cocultured species are used as biofilters, and each level has its own independent commercial value, providing both economic and environmental sustainability. Here, environmental issues of aquaculture and the current status of IMTA are reviewed and its future prospects discussed. Also, the opportunities to expand this systems’ complexity with increased added-value and trophic levels are introduced.
    Reviews in Aquaculture 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/raq.12093 · 3.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The global annual application of antibiotics has been estimated between 100 000 and 200 000 tons (Kümmerer, 2003). In China, it has been estimated that the annual usage of raw antibiotic materials is about 180 000 tons (including health and agricultural use), which means that each person consumes 138 g of antibiotics every year, ten times higher than in America (Zheng et al., 2012). The antibiotic contamination in China has been reported in many aquatic environment, such as in Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong (Minh et al., 2009), Pearl River Estuary (Liang et al., 2013; Xu et al., 2013), Huangpu River in Shanghai (Jiang et al., 2011) and Haihe River in Tianjin (Luo et al., 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, the occurrence and distribution of sixteen antibiotics belonging to four groups in surface water, sediment and groundwater samples from the Wangyang River (WYR), a typical river receiving sewage discharges were investigated. Laboratory analyses revealed that antibiotics were widely distributed in the studied area. The aqueous samples were unavoidably contaminated with antibiotics, and the target antibiotics present in high levels were oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim, with maximum concentrations of the individual contaminant at 3.6×10(5), 9.7×10(3), 6.9×10(4), 1.2×10(4), 4.8×10(3), and 1.1×10(3)ngL(-1), respectively. Oxytetracycline, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and roxithromycin were the most frequently detected compounds in sediment samples, with maximum concentrations of the individual contaminant at 1.6×10(5), 1.7×10(4), 2.1×10(3) and 2.5×10(3)ngg(-1), respectively. The results also revealed that the high intensity of aquaculture activities could contribute to the increasing levels of antibiotics in the area. According to the ratios of measured environmental concentration (MEC) to predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC), chlortetracycline, tetracycline, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin-H2O and sulfamethoxazole may present possible environmental risk to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Synechococcus leopoliensis and M. aeruginosa. Attention should be given to the long-term ecological effects caused by the continuous discharge of antibiotics in the WYR area.
    Chemosphere 10/2014; 112C:267-274. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.04.075 · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Coastal water is considered the ultimate sink for sewage and other by-products of human activities. Some recent studies show that notable amounts of EOC residues are transported to coastal areas via riverine inputs and STP effluents, except for some residues used in mariculture (Bueno et al., 2012; Comeau et al., 2008; Gulkowska et al., 2007; Hu et al., 2005; Jia et al., 2012; Zheng et al., 2012). Dense populations and intensive industry and agriculture (including animal husbandry and aquaculture) produce large amounts of domestic, industrial, agricultural, and aquacultural waste, which may result in various anthropogenic impacts . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study provides a first estimate of the sources, distribution, and risk presented by emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in coastal waters off southwestern Taiwan. Ten illicit drugs, seven nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), five antibiotics, two blood lipid regulators, two antiepileptic drugs, two UV filters, caffeine, atenolol, and omeprazole were analyzed by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS). Thirteen EOCs were detected in coastal waters, including four NSAIDs (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and codeine), three antibiotics (ampicillin, erythromycin, and cefalexin), three illicit drugs (ketamine, pseudoephedrine, and MDMA), caffeine, carbamazepine, and gemfibrozil. The median concentrations for the 13 EOCs ranged from 1.47ng/L to 156ng/L. Spatial variation in concentration of the 13 EOCs suggests discharge into coastal waters via ocean outfall pipes and rivers. Codeine and ampicillin have significant pollution risk quotients (RQ>1), indicating potentially high risk to aquatic organisms in coastal waters.
    Marine Pollution Bulletin 01/2014; 85(2). DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.12.045 · 2.99 Impact Factor
Show more