Measuring fitness in female gymnasts: the gymnastics functional measurement tool.

International journal of sports physical therapy 04/2012; 7(2):124-38.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A reliable and valid method of measuring and monitoring a gymnast's total physical fitness level is needed to assist female gymnasts in achieving healthy, injury-free participation in the sport. The Gymnastics Functional Measurement Tool (GFMT) was previously designed as a field-test to assess physical fitness in female competitive gymnasts. The purpose of this study was to further develop the GFMT by establishing a scoring system for individual test items and to initiate the process of establishing the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the GFMT.
A total of 105 competitive female gymnasts ages 6-18 underwent testing using the GFMT. Fifty of these subjects underwent re-testing one week later in order to assess test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed using a simple regression analysis between total GFMT scores and the gymnasts' competition level to calculate the coefficient of determination (r(2)). Test-retest reliability was analyzed using Model 1 Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Statistical significance was set at the p<0.05 level.
The relationship between total GFMT scores and subjects' current USAG competitive level was found to be good (r(2) = 0.60). Reliability testing of the GFMT total score showed good test-retest reliability over a one week period (ICC=0.97). Test-retest reliability of the individual component items was good (ICC = 0.80-0.92).
The results of this study provide initial support for the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the GFMT.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aerobic and anaerobic performance of the upper body (UB) and lower body (LB) were assessed by arm cranking and treadmill tests respectively in a comparison of national (N) and international (I) male gymnasts. Force velocity and Wingate tests were performed using cycle ergometers for both arms and legs. In spite of a significant difference in training volume (4- 12 vs. 27-34 h.wk(-1) for N and I, respectively), there was no significant difference between N and I in aerobic and anaerobic performance. Upper body and LB maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) values were 34.44 +/- 4.62 and 48.64 +/- 4.63 vs. 33.39 +/- 4.77 and 49.49 +/- 5.47, respectively, for N and I. Both N and I had a high lactic threshold (LT), at 76 and 82% of VO(2)max, respectively. Values for UB and LB force velocity (9.75 +/- 1.12 and 15.07 +/- 4.25 vs. 10.63 +/- 0.95 and 15.87 +/- 1.25 and Wingate power output (10.43 +/- 0.74 and 10.98 +/- 3.06 vs. 9.58 +/- 0.60 and 13.46 +/- 1.34 were also consistent for N and I. These findings confirm the consistency of VO(2)max values presented for gymnasts in the last 4 decades, together with an increase in peak power values. Consistent values for aerobic and anaerobic performance suggest that the significant difference in training volume is related to other aspects of perfomance that distinguish N from I gymnasts. Modern gymnastics training at N and I levels is characterized by a focus on relative strength and peak power. In the present study, the high LT is a reflection of the importance of strength training, which is consistent with research for sports such as wrestling.
    The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 12/2006; 20(4):899-907. DOI:10.1519/R-18525.1 · 1.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Measures of psychological constructs are validated by testing whether they relate to measures of other constructs as specified by theory. Each test of relations between measures reflects on the validity of both the measures and the theory driving the test. Construct validation concerns the simultaneous process of measure and theory validation. In this article, we review the recent history of validation efforts in clinical psychological science that has led to this perspective, and we review the following recent advances in validation theory and methodology of importance for clinical researchers. These are: the emergence of nonjustificationist philosophy of science; an increasing appreciation for theory and the need for informative tests of construct validity; valid construct representation in experimental psychopathology; the need to avoid representing multidimensional constructs with a single score; and the emergence of effective new statistical tools for the evaluation of convergent and discriminant validity.
    Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 04/2009; 5:1-25. DOI:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.032408.153639 · 12.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present investigation was to study the possible effects of specificity of training on muscle strength and anaerobic power in children from different sports and at different performance levels in relation to growth and maturation status. Hundred and eighty-four children of both gender participating either in swimming, tennis, team handball or gymnastics were recruited from the best clubs in Denmark. Within each sport, the coach had divided the children into an elite (E) and non-elite (NE) group according to performance level and talent. Tanner stage assessment and body weight and height measurements were performed by a physician. The anaerobic performances were assessed by Wingate tests and jumping performance in squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) from two heights. Most of the differences between groups in Wingate performance disappeared when the data were normalised to body mass. The gymnasts were the best jumpers and their superiority were increased in the more complex motor coordination tasks like DJ. The results may indicate some influence of training specificity, especially on the more complex motor tasks as DJ and there may be an effect of training before puberty. The performance in the less complex motor tasks like cycling and SJ and CMJ may also be influenced by specific training, but not to the same extent, and heritance may be an important factor for performance in these anaerobic tasks.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 07/2002; 12(3):171-8. DOI:10.1034/j.1600-0838.2002.01128.x · 3.17 Impact Factor