2,3,4,5-Tetraphenylsilole-based conjugated polymers: synthesis, optical properties, and as sensors for explosive compounds.
ABSTRACT A series of linear 2,5-tetraphenylsilole-vinylene-type polymers were successfully synthesized for the first time. The tetraphenylsilole moieties were linked at their 2,5-positions through a vinylene bridge with p-dialkoxybenzenes to obtain polymer PSVB and with 3,6-carbazole to obtain polymer PSVC. For comparison, 2,5-tetraphenylsilole-ethyne-type polymer PSEB was also synthesized, in which the vinylene bridge of PSVB was replaced with an ethyne bridge. Very interestingly, the bridging group (vinylene or ethyne) had a significant effect on the photophysical properties of the corresponding polymers. The fluorescence peak of PSEB at 504 nm in solution originated from the emission of its silole moieties, whereas PSVB and PSVC emitted yellow light and no blueish-green emission from the silole moieties was observed, thus demonstrating that the emissions of PSVB and PSVC were due to their polymer backbones. More importantly, the 2,5-tetraphenylsilole-ethyne polymer exhibited a pronounced aggregation-enhanced emission (AEE) effect but the 2,5-tetraphenylsilole-vinylene polymer was AEE-inactive. Moreover, both AEE-active 2,5-tetraphenylsilole-ethyne polymer and AEE-inactive 2,5-tetraphenylsilole-vinylene polymers were successfully applied as fluorescent chemosensors for the detection of explosive compounds.
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ABSTRACT: 2,3,4,5-Tetraarylsiloles are a class of important luminogenic materials with efficient solid-state emission and excellent electron-transport capacity. However, those exhibiting outstanding electroluminescence properties are still rare. In this work, bulky 9,9-dimethylfluorenyl, 9,9-diphenylfluorenyl, and 9,9'-spirobifluorenyl substituents were introduced into the 2,5-positions of silole rings. The resulting 2,5-difluorenyl-substituted siloles are thermally stable and have low-lying LUMO energy levels. Crystallographic analysis revealed that intramolecular π-π interactions are prone to form between 9,9'-spirobifluorene units and phenyl rings at the 3,4-positions of the silole ring. In the solution state, these new siloles show weak blue and green emission bands, arising from the fluorenyl groups and silole rings with a certain extension of π conjugation, respectively. With increasing substituent volume, intramolecular rotation is decreased, and thus the emissions of the present siloles gradually improved and they showed higher fluorescence quantum yields (ΦF =2.5-5.4 %) than 2,3,4,5-tetraphenylsiloles. They are highly emissive in solid films, with dominant green to yellow emissions and good solid-state ΦF values (75-88 %). Efficient organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated by adopting them as host emitters and gave high luminance, current efficiency, and power efficiency of up to 44 100 cd m(-2) , 18.3 cd A(-1) , and 15.7 lm W(-1) , respectively. Notably, a maximum external quantum efficiency of 5.5 % was achieved in an optimized device.Chemistry 01/2014; · 5.93 Impact Factor