Management of diabetic foot ulcers.
ABSTRACT Diabetic foot is a serious complication of diabetes which aggravates the patient's condition whilst also having significant socioeconomic impact. The aim of the present review is to summarize the causes and pathogenetic mechanisms leading to diabetic foot, and to focus on the management of this important health issue. Increasing physicians' awareness and hence their ability to identify the "foot at risk," along with proper foot care, may prevent diabetic foot ulceration and thus reduce the risk of amputation.
Article: Hepatitis C virus NS5A and subgenomic replicon activate NF-kappaB via tyrosine phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha and its degradation by calpain protease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) has been implicated in the HCV antiviral resistance, replication, and transactivation of cellular gene expression. We have recently shown that HCV NS5A activates NF-kappaB via oxidative stress (22). In this study, we investigate the molecular mechanism(s) of NF-kappaB activation in response to oxidative stress induced by NS5A protein. In contrast to the classic Ser32,36 phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, we report here that tyrosine phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha at Tyr42 and Tyr305 residues is induced by the HCV NS5A and the subgenomic replicons in the NF-kappaB activation process. Use of IkappaBalpha-Tyr42,305 double mutant provided the evidence for their key role in the activation of NF-kappaB. Activation of NF-kappaB was blocked by a series of tyrosine kinase inhibitors but not by IkappaB kinase inhibitor BAY 11-7085. More specifically, a ZAP-70 knock-out cell line expressing NS5A and other nonstructural proteins respectively prevented the NF-kappaB activation, indicating the involvement of ZAP-70 as a probable tyrosine kinase in the activation process. Evidence is also presented for the possible role of calpain proteases in the NS5A-induced IkappaBalpha degradation. These studies collectively define an alternate pathway of NF-kappaB activation by NS5A alone or in the context of the HCV subgenomic replicon. Constitutive activation of NF-kappaB by HCV has implications in the chronic liver disease including hepatocellular carcinoma associated with HCV infection.Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2003; 278(42):40778-87. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Management of Diabetic Foot Ulcers
Kleopatra Alexiadou•John Doupis
To view enhanced content go to www.diabetestherapy-open.com
Received: December 23, 2011
? The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com
Diabetic foot is a serious complication of
socioeconomic impact. The aim of the present
pathogenetic mechanisms leading to diabetic
foot, and to focus on the management of this
important health issue. Increasing physicians’
awareness and hence their ability to identify the
‘‘foot at risk,’’ along with proper foot care, may
prevent diabetic foot ulceration and thus reduce
the risk of amputation.
the causes and
Diabetic foot is one of the most significant and
devastating complications of diabetes, and is
defined as a foot affected by ulceration that is
associated with neuropathy and/or peripheral
arterial disease of the lower limb in a patient
with diabetes. The prevalence of diabetic foot
ulceration in the diabetic population is 4–10%;
the condition is more frequent in older patients
[1–3]. It is estimated that about 5% of all
patients with diabetes present with a history of
foot ulceration, while the lifetime risk of
diabetic patients developing this complication
is 15% [1–3].
The majority (60–80%) of foot ulcers will
heal, while 10–15% of them will remain active,
and 5–24% of them will finally lead to limb
amputation within a period of 6–18 months
after the first evaluation. Neuropathic wounds
are more likely to heal over a period of 20 weeks,
while neuroischemic ulcers take longer and will
First Department of Propaedeutic Medicine, Athens
University Medical School, Laiko General Hospital,
J. Doupis (&)
Department of Internal Medicine and Diabetes
Clinic, Salamis Naval Hospital, Salamis Naval Base,
18900 Salamis, Greece
Enhanced content for this article is
available on the journal web site:
Diabetes Ther (2012) 3:4
more often lead to limb amputation . It has
been found that 40–70% of all nontraumatic
amputations of the lower limbs occur in
patients with diabetes . Furthermore, many
precede approximately 85% of all amputations
performed in diabetic patients .
duration of diabetes [6, 7]. The prevention of
diabetic foot is crucial, considering the negative
impact on a patient’s quality of life and the
associated economic burden on the healthcare
Diabetic foot ulceration is a major health
problem and itsmanagement
multidisciplinary approach. This review aims to
provide a synopsis of the current management
to the options for treatment. The authors believe
that it may be useful to primary care physicians,
nurses, podiatrists, diabetologists, and vascular
surgeons, as well as all healthcare providers
involved in the prevention or management of
diabetic foot ulcers.
The most significant risk factors for foot
ulceration are diabetic neuropathy, peripheral
arterial disease, and consequent traumas of the
Diabetic neuropathy is the common factor in
almost 90% of diabetic foot ulcers [9, 10]. Nerve
damage in diabetes affects the motor, sensory,
and autonomic fibers. Motor neuropathy causes
muscle weakness, atrophy, and paresis. Sensory
neuropathy leads to loss of the protective
and decreased sweating , resulting in a loss
of skin integrity, providing a site vulnerable to
microbial infection .
Peripheral arterial disease is 2–8 times more
common in patients with diabetes, starting at
an earlier age, progressing more rapidly, and
usually being more severe than in the general
population. It commonly affects the segments
between the knee and the ankle. It has been
proven to be an independent risk factor for
cardiovascular disease as well as a predictor of
the outcome of foot ulceration . Even minor
infection, increase the demand for blood in
the foot, and an inadequate blood supply may
result in foot ulceration, potentially leading to
limb amputation . The majority of foot
ulcers are of mixed etiology (neuroischemic),
particularly in older patients .
neuropathy, loss of sensation in the feet leads
(calluses, nails, foot deformities) or external
causes (shoes, burns, foreign bodies) that are
undetected at the time and may consequently
lead to foot ulceration. This may be followed by
infection of the ulcer, which may ultimately
lead to foot amputation, especially in patients
with peripheral arterial disease.
abnormalities, such as flatfoot, hallux valgus,
hammer foot, play an important role in the
pathway of diabetic foot ulcers since they
contribute to abnormal plantar pressures and
therefore predispose to ulceration.
Other risk factors for foot ulceration include
aprevious history of
cigarette smoking. Some studies have shown
that foot ulceration is more common in men
Page 2 of 15
Diabetes Ther (2012) 3:4
Social factors, such as low socioeconomic status,
poor access to healthcare services, and poor
education are also proven to be related to more
frequent foot ulceration [14, 16].
Physical examination of the diabetic foot is
based on assessment of the skin and of the
The dermatological examination includes a
visual inspection of the skin of the legs and feet,
particularly the dorsal, plantar, medial, lateral,
and posterior surfaces, as well as a close
observations to be noted include the presence
of peeling skin and maceration or fissuring of
the interdigital skin. The visual inspection may
discover signs of autonomic neuropathy and
sudomotor dysfunction .
People with diabetes are at high risk of
therefore, the palpation of pulses bilaterally in
the dorsalis pedis, posterior tibial, popliteal, and
superficial femoral arteries is necessary for
assessment of the blood circulation in the
lower limbs. Inadequate perfusion of a limb,
due to peripheral vascular disease, may crucially
affect the progress of the healing of an ulcer,
often resulting in chronic unhealed ulcers that
are susceptible to infection . A relatively
simple method to confirm the clinical suspicion
of arterial occlusive disease is to measure the
resting systolic blood pressure in the ankles and
arms. This is performed by measuring the
systolic blood pressure (using a Doppler probe)
in the brachial, posterior tibial, and dorsalis
pedis arteries . The highest of the four
measurements in the ankles and feet is divided
measurements. This ratio is referred to as the
ankle–brachial index (ABI). Normal ABI values
range from 1.0 to 1.3, since the pressure is
higher in the ankle than in the arm. Values over
1.3 suggest a noncompressible calcified vessel.
An ABI of less than 0.9 is indicative of
peripheral vascular disease and is associated
with 50% or more stenosis in one or more
major vessels. An ABI of 0.4–0.9 suggests a
degree of arterial obstruction associated with
claudication. An ABI of less than 0.4 or an ankle
represents advanced ischemia . The ABI
correlates with clinical
extremity function, such as walking distance,
velocity, balance, and overall physical activity.
In addition, a low ABI has been associated with
a higher risk of coronary heart disease, stroke,
transient ischemic attack, progressive renal
insufficiency, and all-cause mortality . A
potential limitation of the ABI is that calcified
vessels may not compress normally, possibly
resulting in falsely elevated Doppler signals.
Thus, an ABI of over 1.3 is suggestive of calcified
vessels. In such patients, an accurate pressure
may be obtained by measuring the blood
pressure in the toe and calculating the toe–
brachial index . If ABIs are normal at rest
but symptoms strongly suggest claudication,
hemodynamically significant stenosis that is
subclinical at rest but significant on exertion.
Normal skin temperature ranges from warm at
the tibia to cool at the distal toes . Foot-skin
temperature can be measured with a handheld
infrared thermometer on the plantar aspect of
the foot at the level of the first metatarsal head.
thehigher ofthetwo brachial
less than50 mmHg
Diabetes Ther (2012) 3:4
Page 3 of 15
associated with sudomotor dysfunction and a
higher risk for foot ulceration [21, 22].
The presence of diabetic neuropathy can be
established from an abbreviated medical history
and physical examination. Symptoms such as a
burning sensation; pins and needles; shooting,
sharp, or stabbing pains; and muscle cramps,
which are distributed symmetrically in both
limbs (‘‘stocking and glove distribution’’), and
often worse at night, are usually present in
neuropathy may also be evaluated using the
Neuropathy Symptom Score (NSS), which is a
validated symptom score with a high predictive
value to screen for peripheral neuropathy in
diabetes [23, 24] (Table 1).
The physical examination of the foot assesses
the perception of superficial pain (pinprick),
temperature sensation (using a two-metal rod),
light sensation (using the edge of a cotton-wool
Weinstein 5.07 monofilament). Additionally,
the physician should examine the vibration
perception usinga tuning
biothesiometer. The examination of position
sense (proprioception) and deep tendon reflexes
(Achilles tendon, patellar) is also essential .
Neuropathic deficits in the feet can be
determined using the Neuropathy Disability
inability to detect pinprick sensation (using a
neurological examination pin), vibration (using
temperature sensation (using warm and cool
rods), and loss or reduction of the Achilles reflex
Association, a foot that has lost its protective
sensation is considered to be a ‘‘foot at risk’’
for ulceration. The diagnosis of a foot at
temperatureisreported to be
is derivedfrom the
Table 1 Neuropathy
Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS)
Day and night1
Have the symptoms ever woken the patient from
Could any maneuver reduce the symptoms?
Sitting or lying0
Page 4 of 15
Diabetes Ther (2012) 3:4
5.07/10-g monofilament test, plus one of the
following tests: vibration test (using 128-Hz
tuning fork or a biothesiometer), pinprick
sensation, or ankle reflexes .
The above tests have been reported to have a
positive predictive value of 46% and a negative
predictive value of 87% for the risk of incident
neuropathic in the presence of peripheral
diabetic neuropathy and absence of ischemia;
ischemic if the patient presents peripheral artery
disease but no diabetic peripheral neuropathy;
and neuroischemic if neuropathy and ischemia
classification, many efforts have been made to
categorize foot ulcers according to extent, size
and depth, location, presence of infection, and
ischemia. The Meggitt–Wagner classification is
one of the most popular validated classifications
for the foot ulcers (Table 2). Other classification
systems for diabetic foot ulcers have also been
proposed and validated .
Whatever method is used for the diabeticfoot
and reliable monitoring of the healing progress
of the ulcer, while at the same time serving as a
communication tool across specialties.
Table 2 Meggitt–Wagner classification of foot ulcers
Grade Description of the ulcer
0Pre- or postulcerative lesion completely
1Superficial, full-thickness ulcer limited to the
dermis, not extending to the subcutis
2 Ulcer of the skin extending through the subcutis
with exposed tendon or bone and without
osteomyelitis or abscess formation
3Deep ulcers with osteomyelitis or abscess
4Localized gangrene of the toes or the forefoot
5 Foot with extensive gangrene
Table 1 continued
Dorsal foot area
Peripheral neuropathy is present if there are moderate signs
(NDS[6) with or without symptoms (any NSS), or mild
signs (NDS 3–5) with moderate symptoms (NSS[5)a
3–4: mild symptoms 3–5: mild neuropathic signs
5–6: moderate symptoms 6–8: moderate
7–9: severe 9–10: severe
Diabetes Ther (2012) 3:4
Page 5 of 15
The gold standard for diabetic foot ulcer
treatment includes debridement of the wound,
management of any infection, revascularization
procedures when indicated, and off-loading of
the ulcer . Other methods have also been
suggested to be beneficial as add-on therapies,
such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy, use of
advanced wound care products, and negative-
pressure wound therapy (NPWT) . However,
data so far have not provided adequate evidence
of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of these
add-on treatment methods.
Debridement should be carried out in all chronic
wounds to remove surface debris and necrotic
tissues. It improves healing by promoting the
production of granulation tissue and can be
achieved surgically, enzymatically, biologically,
and through autolysis.
Surgical debridement, known also as the
‘‘sharp method,’’ is performed by scalpels,
and israpidand effective
hyperkeratosis and dead tissue. Particular care
should be taken to protect healthy tissue, which
has a red or deep pink (granulation tissue)
appearance . Using a scalpel blade with the
tip pointed at a 45? angle, all nonviable tissue
must be removed until a healthy bleeding ulcer
bed is produced with saucerization of the
wound edges. If severe ischemia is suspected,
aggressive debridement should be postponed
until a vascular examination has been carried
Enzymatic debridement can be achieved
using a variety of enzymatic agents, including
crab-derived collagenase, collagen from krill,
papain, a combination of streptokinase and
streptodornase, and dextrans. These are able to
remove necrotic tissue without damaging the
healthy tissue. Although expensive, enzymatic
debridement is indicated for ischemic ulcers
because surgical debridement
painful in these cases .
Biological debridement has been applied
recently using sterile maggots. Maggots have
the ability to digest surface debris, bacteria, and
necrotic tissues only, leaving healthy tissue
intact. Recent reports suggest that this method
is also effective in the elimination of drug-
resistant Staphylococcus aureus, from wound
Autolytic debridement involves the use of
environment so that host defense mechanisms
devitalized tissue using the body’s enzymes.
Autolysis is enhanced by the use of proper
dressings, such as hydrocolloids, hydrogels, and
films. Autolysis is highly selective, avoiding
damage to the surrounding skin .
In conclusion, debridement, especially the
‘‘sharp method,’’ is one of the gold standards in
contributing to the healing process of the
wound, including the diabetic ulcer [34, 35].
Off-loading of the ulcer area is extremely
important for the healing of plantar ulcers.
Retrospective and prospective studies have
significantly contribute to the development of
plantar ulcers in diabetic patients [36–38]. In
addition, any existing foot deformities may
increase the possibility of ulceration, especially
Page 6 of 15
Diabetes Ther (2012) 3:4
Furthermore, inadequate off-loading of the
ulcer has been proven to be a significant
reason for the delay of ulcer healing even in
an adequately perfused limb . The value of
ulcer off-loading is increasing, as it has been
reported that the risk of recurrence of a healed
foot ulcer is high if the foot is not properly off-
loaded (in the high-pressure areas), even after
closure of the ulcer .
The most effective method of off-loading,
which is also considered to be the gold
standard, is the nonremovable total-contact
cast (TCC). It is made of plaster or fast-setting
fiberglass cast materials, has relatively low costs,
Nonremovable TCCs are indicated for the
effective off-loading of ulcers located at the
forefoot or midfoot. Severe foot ischemia, a
deep abscess, osteomyelitis, and poor skin
quality are absolute contraindications to the
use of a nonremovable TCC. Nonremovable
TCCs work by distributing the plantar pressures
from the forefoot and midfoot to the heel. They
allow complete rest of the foot whilst also
permitting restricted activity. Nonremovable
TCCs also reduce edema, and compliance with
treatment is necessarily high .
There are a number of removable cast
lightweight, semirigid shell that helps support
protection (Fig. 1). The sole is of a rocker type,
offering off-loading of the forefoot during
standing and walking. The foot base is wide
and there is enough room for dressings. In some
edema reduction. In other RCWs, there are
additional layers of foam or other soft material,
offering total contact .
A modification of RCWs is an instant total-
contact cast (ITCC), where there is a wrapping
layer of cohesive tape or plaster bandage around
the RCW . The aim of the ITCC is to
combine the efficacy of a TCC with the easy
application of a RCW.
Half shoes are another solution for patients
who cannot tolerate other methods of off-
loading, although they provide less pressure
relief than a cast boot and are difficult to walk
in. Therapeutic shoes, custom insoles, and the
use of felted foam (Fig. 2) are alternative
methods to off-load wounds located on the
forefoot, and can reduce pressure at the site of
ulceration by 4–50% .
Ulcers heal more quickly and are often less
complicated by infection when in a moist
environment. Theonly exceptionis
Fig. 1 Removable cast walker
Diabetes Ther (2012) 3:4
Page 7 of 15
dry gangrene, where the necrotic area should be
kept dry in order to avoid infection and
exudate is rich in cytokines, platelets, white
enzymes.Most of these
proliferation and angiogenesis, while others,
such as leukocytes and toxins produced by
bacteria, inhibit the healing process. Moreover,
it has been reported that local concentrations of
growth factors [platelet-derived growth factor-
beta (PDGF-beta), transforming growth factor-
beta] are low in patients with chronic ulcers
. The ideal dressing should be free from
exudates and toxic components, maintain a
interface, be impermeable to microorganisms,
allow gaseous exchange, and, finally, should be
easily removed and cost-effective . Various
dressings are available that are intended to
prevent infection and enhance wound healing,
and several studies support their effectiveness
for this purpose [46, 47]. However, most of
these studies were performed in wounds and
not in diabetic ulcers [44, 46, 47]. Available data
on their use in diabetes are scarce , and
therefore further randomized clinical trials are
needed to support the existing evidence for
their benefit in diabetic ulcers.
Regranex?; Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, Inc.,
International NV, Beerse, Belgium) has been
developed as a topical therapy for the treatment
of noninfected diabetic foot ulcers. It is applied
in the form of a once-daily gel along with
debridement on a weekly basis . Initial
studies have indicated a significant positive
effect of becaplermin [49, 50] on ulcer healing;
however, more recent studies have reported an
increased incidence of cancer in patients treated
with becaplermin, especially at high doses .
Administration has published a warning of an
increased risk of cancer if more than three tubes
of becaplermin are used . Further studies are
necessary in order to explore the benefit-to-risk
ratio, as well as the cost effectiveness of this
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous
product, extracted from the patient’s plasma,
which includes a high platelet concentration in
Fig. 2 Off-loading of a diabetic foot ulcer with felted
Page 8 of 15
Diabetes Ther (2012) 3:4
a fibrin clot that can be easily applied to the
ulcer area. The fibrin clot is absorbed during
wound healing within days to weeks following
its application . There are a few studies
reporting a shorter closure time and higher
healing percentage in patients using PRP and
platelet-derived products [53, 54]. However,
further studies are required to support the
possible beneficial effect of this method in
stimulating factor (GCFS) in patients with
infected foot ulcers vary, with some studies
indicating faster resolution of the infection and
faster healing [55, 56], while others did not
report any significant difference [57, 58]. Basic
fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is known to be
beneficial in the formation of granulation tissue
and normal healing ; however, one small
study failed to prove any significant difference
between the intervention and the control group
. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) acts on
epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle
cells to promote healing . Evidence for the
use of EGF in diabetic ulcers is limited, with
only a small amount of data reporting a
significantly higher rate of ulcer healing with
EGF use compared with placebo .
Bioengineered Skin Substitutes
Tissue-engineered skin substitutes are classified
into allogenic cell-containing
Graftskin, Organogenesis Inc., Canton, MA,
autologous cell-containing (Hyalograft?
Fidia Advanced BioPolymers, Abano Terme,
Italy; Laserskin?, Fidia Advanced BioPolymers,
Abano Terme, Italy; TranCell?, CellTran Ltd.,
Sheffield, UK), and acellular (OASIS?, Cook
GRAFTJACKET?, Wright Medical Group Inc.,
Corporation, Branchburg, NJ, USA) matrices.
The first two types of matrix contain living cells,
such as keratinocytes or fibroblasts, in a matrix,
while acellular matrices are free of cells and act
neovascularization and wound healing.
promising therapeutic adjunct therapy to the
standard wound care for the management of
noninfected diabetic foot ulcers. Nevertheless,
more studies need to be conducted in the future
in order to confirm these results [63–69].
Extracellular Matrix Proteins
Hyaff?(Fidia Farmaceutici, Abano Terme, Italy)
is a semisynthetic ester of hyaluronic acid
which facilitates the growth and movement of
fibroblasts, and controls hydration .
Other available products contain lyophilized
collagen from various sources (bovine, porcine),
alone or incombination
cellulose (Promogran?, Johnson & Johnson,
Collagen seems to induce the production of
endogenous collagen and to promote platelet
adhesion and aggregation. It has been reported
to be safe and effective as an adjunctive therapy
in the management of foot ulceration; however,
evidence is still limited .
normal wound healing, there is a balance
between the construction and the destruction
Diabetes Ther (2012) 3:4
Page 9 of 15
of the extracellular matrix. In chronic wounds,
a high expression of MMP-2 in fibroblasts and
the endothelium is detected and is believed to
favor destruction. Thus, downregulation of
MMP-2 expression may enhance the healing
DerMax?(Tyco Healthcare Group Lp, North
Haven, CT, USA) is a dressing containing metal
ions and citric acid, and its topical application is
associated with a lower expression of MMP-2 by
fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Metal ions
inhibit the production of reactive oxygen
species by polymorphonuclear cells, and citric
acid acts as a scavenger of superoxide anions
. One pilot study provided encouraging
results . Certainly, randomized trials are
necessary in order to establish the role of
DerMax in the treatment of diabetic ulcers.
Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy
Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has
emerged as a new treatment for diabetic foot
ulcers. It involves the use of intermittent or
continuous subatmospheric pressure through a
connected to a resilient open-celled foam
surface dressing covered with an adhesive
drape to maintain a closed environment. The
pump is connected to a canister to collect
wound discharge and exudate. Experimental
data suggest that NPWT optimizes blood flow,
decreases tissue edema, and removes exudate,
proinflammatory cytokines, and bacteria from
the wound area . It should be performed
after debridement and continued until the
formation of healthy granulation tissue at the
surface ofthe ulcer.
indicated for complex diabetic foot wounds
; however, it is contraindicated for patients
with an active bleeding ulcer. Two small studies
[75, 76] and one larger study  provide some
benefit of NPWT in the healing rate and time
of diabeticfoot ulcers.
randomized trials are needed in order to
confirm these results.
replicated at higher rates in an oxygen-rich
environment [78, 79]. Moreover, leukocytes kill
bacteria more effectively when supplied by
oxygen. It is also known that fibroblasts from
nondiabetic persons. Based on these data, the
idea was that the administration of oxygen at
high concentrations might accelerate wound
intermittent administration of 100% oxygen at
a pressure greater than that at sea level. It is
performed in a chamber with the patient
breathing 100% oxygen intermittently while
2–3 atmospheres for a duration of 1–2 h. A full
course involves 30–40 sessions. A small amount
of data suggests significant reduction of the
ulcer area  as well as reduction of the risk for
major amputation . Hyperbaric oxygen can
be applied as an adjunctive therapy for patients
with severe soft-tissue foot infections and
osteomyelitis who have not responded to
include barotrauma to the ears and sinuses,
pneumothorax, transient changes in visual
acuity, and seizures . Furthermore, a recent
systematic review by the National Institute for
Guidelines Development Group in the UK
Page 10 of 15
Diabetes Ther (2012) 3:4
insufficient to demonstrate that hyperbaric
oxygen therapy is cost-effective .
The management of diabetic foot ulcers remains
a major therapeutic challenge which implies an
urgent need to review strategies and treatments
in order to achieve the goals and reduce the
burden of care in an efficient and cost-effective
way. Questions remain as to which types of
intervention,technology, and dressing are
suitable to promote healing, and whether all
therapies are necessary and cost-effective as
Working Group on the Diabetic Foot has
conducted two systematic reviews [35, 83] of
the evidence and effectiveness of interventions
to enhance the healing of chronic diabetic foot
ulcers. The preliminary results are promising,
but large randomized controlled trials are
necessary in orderto
effectiveness of the new therapies.
Prevention of diabetic foot ulceration is
critical in order to reduce the associated high
morbidity and mortality rates, and the danger
of amputation. It is essential to identify the
‘‘foot at risk,’’ through careful inspection and
physical examination of the foot followed by
neuropathy and vascular tests.
Regular foot examination, patient education,
appropriate footwear, and prompt treatment of
minor injuries can decrease ulcer occurrence by
amputation in nonischemic limbs [84, 85].
evaluated and the gold-standard treatments
should be strictly applied in order to prevent
amputation. Further clinical studies are needed
to support the existing evidence regarding the
clinical benefit of new approaches for the
approaches should be used only as add-on
therapies to the gold-standard wound care.
Dr. Doupis is the guarantor for this article, and
takes full responsibility for the integrity of the
work as a whole.
Conflict of interest. The authors declare that
they have no conflicts of interest.
Open Access. This article is distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
reproduction in any medium, provided the
original author(s) and source are credited.
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