Imaging and classification of congenital cystic renal diseases.

Department of Medical Imaging, Erasme Hospital, Brussels, Belgium.
American Journal of Roentgenology (Impact Factor: 2.9). 05/2012; 198(5):1004-13. DOI: 10.2214/AJR.11.8083
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this clinical perspective is to describe a decision-tree approach to the finding of hyperechoic kidneys as signs of congenital renal cystic disease in fetuses and children. This approach takes into account the latest classification of inherited renal cystic diseases. The basis of the approach is a detailed sonographic analysis in addition to assessment of clinical data and the familial history. CONCLUSION: With the decision-tree approach, typical sonographic patterns can be described and used for accurate diagnosis of isolated renal cystic diseases and polymalformative syndromes. In some cases, however, the diagnosis is not achieved, and complementary examinations are needed.

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to establish objective criteria for the evaluation of cortical echogenicity (CE), cortical thickness (CT), and medullary thickness (MT), as well as the corticomedullary ratio (CMR), throughout gestation. In this prospective single-center study, CE, MT, CT, and CMR were evaluated in a group of singleton pregnancies examined by ultrasound during the second and third trimesters. The CE evolved from a hyperechoic pattern compared with the liver or spleen during early second trimester to a hypoechogenic pattern in the third trimester, with no fetus displaying cortical hyperechogenicity after 32 weeks. CT increased from 1.8 to 2.5 mm (p < 0.05) from 21 to 25 to 34 to 37 weeks; MT from 2.7 to 5.1 mm (p < 0.0001), and the CMR decreased from 0.7 to 0.5 (p < 0.001). The CE, CT, and MT evolve with gestation. Cortical hyperechogenicity compared with the liver or spleen after 32 weeks or a CMR above 0.7 in the third trimester should raise the suspicion of a fetal nephropathy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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