Imaging and classification of congenital cystic renal diseases.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this clinical perspective is to describe a decision-tree approach to the finding of hyperechoic kidneys as signs of congenital renal cystic disease in fetuses and children. This approach takes into account the latest classification of inherited renal cystic diseases. The basis of the approach is a detailed sonographic analysis in addition to assessment of clinical data and the familial history. CONCLUSION: With the decision-tree approach, typical sonographic patterns can be described and used for accurate diagnosis of isolated renal cystic diseases and polymalformative syndromes. In some cases, however, the diagnosis is not achieved, and complementary examinations are needed.
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ABSTRACT: Genes for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) type 2 and autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) type 1 are both encoded over a short segment of chromosome 16. When deletions involve both genes, an entity known as the TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome, variable phenotypes of TSC and ADPKD are exhibited. This syndrome has not been reviewed in the radiology literature. Unlike renal cysts in TSC, cystic disease in TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome results in hypertension and renal failure. A radiologist might demonstrate polycystic kidney disease before the patient develops other stigmata of TSC. Conversely, in patients with known TSC, enlarged and polycystic kidneys should signal the possibility of the TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome and not simply TSC. Distinguishing these diagnoses has implications in prognosis, treatment and genetic counseling.Pediatric Radiology 10/2014; 45(3). DOI:10.1007/s00247-014-3147-1 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim was to report ultrasound (US) patterns of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF1β) mutation throughout childhood and determine whether ultrasound could be predictive of renal failure. The sonographic examinations in 34 children with HNF1β mutation were reviewed. Their sonographic characteristics were compared with renal function. At first postnatal examination renal length was normal in 44 % of the patients, decreased in 24 %, increased in 12 % and asymmetrical in 20 %. Renal cortex was hyperechoic in 97 %. Corticomedullary differentiation was abnormal in 59 %. Cysts were present in 77 % of patients. Cysts were mostly subcapsular (64 %). Twenty-eight patients had follow-up examinations. A modification of the sonographic appearance was observed in 91 % of patients. Eight patients (23 %) had renal failure; no specific US pattern could be demonstrated. At birth, HNF1β mutation was typically associated on US with the combination of hyperechoic, normal-sized kidneys with abnormal corticomedullary differentiation (CMD) and multiple cortical cysts. In older children, the appearances can be variable: kidneys may have decreased (32 %) or normal size (33 %); they are usually hyperechoic (50 %) with abnormal CMD (78 %) and (sub)cortical cysts (71 %). No pattern appears to be associated with renal failure. • HNF1β mutations determine significant anomalies of sonographic appearances of kidneys in children. • Kidneys appear mainly hyperechoic, with or without CMD and with subcapsular cysts. • The US pattern may evolve throughout childhood in the same patient. • No correlation was found between any sonographic pattern and renal failure.European Radiology 02/2015; 25(5). DOI:10.1007/s00330-014-3550-x · 4.34 Impact Factor
Article: Neonatal Polycystic Kidney Disease[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article provides an up-to-date comprehensive review and summary on neonatal polycystic kidney disease (PKD) with emphasis on the differential diagnosis, clinical manifestations, diagnostic techniques, and potential therapeutic approaches for the major causes of neonatal PKD, namely hereditary disease, including autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant PKD and nonhereditary PKD, with particular emphasis on multicystic dysplastic kidney. A brief overview of obstructive cystic dysplasia and simple and complex cysts is also included.Clinics in Perinatology 09/2014; 41(3). DOI:10.1016/j.clp.2014.05.005 · 2.13 Impact Factor