Imaging and classification of congenital cystic renal diseases.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this clinical perspective is to describe a decision-tree approach to the finding of hyperechoic kidneys as signs of congenital renal cystic disease in fetuses and children. This approach takes into account the latest classification of inherited renal cystic diseases. The basis of the approach is a detailed sonographic analysis in addition to assessment of clinical data and the familial history. CONCLUSION: With the decision-tree approach, typical sonographic patterns can be described and used for accurate diagnosis of isolated renal cystic diseases and polymalformative syndromes. In some cases, however, the diagnosis is not achieved, and complementary examinations are needed.
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ABSTRACT: Increased echogenicity of the kidney in the newborn has many causes, some of which reflect serious renal disease. The major abnormal imaging pattern is the large, diffusely hyperechoic kidney with abnormal architecture. Its differential diagnosis includes recessive and dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD), glomerulocystic kidney disease, and diffuse cystic dysplasia. The family history and ultrasonic screening of the parents and siblings are essential in the evaluation. The identification of associated nonrenal abnormalities is important to the recognition of syndromal cystic disease. Glomerulocystic kidney disease, which comprises sporadic and syndromal forms, appears similar to dominant PKD. While renal biopsy almost always differentiates recessive from dominant PKD, renal biopsy cannot differentiate among the forms of glomerulocystic kidney disease, except in the case of tuberous sclerosis, which has unique histopathological characteristics. Other causes of the enlarged hyperechoic kidneys with abnormal architecture include renal vein thrombosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. A second pattern is the hyperechoic small kidney with abnormal architecture. Many of these kidneys are dysplastic and associated with urinary tract obstruction. The combination of hyperechoic parenchyma and pyelocaliceal dilatation suggests obstructive cystic dysplasia. Cortical and medullary necrosis in the newborn also causes hyperechogenicity in small kidneys. A third pattern contains those kidneys with medullary hyperechogenicity, the most common cause of which in the newborn is nephrocalcinosis associated with furosemide therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Pediatric Nephrology 07/1993; 7(3):294-302. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ultrasound finding of renal medullary cysts associated with increased echogenicity has been suggested to be diagnostic of juvenile nephronophthisis. The lack of cysts in several of our patients with juvenile nephronophthisis lead us to review the ultrasound findings at presentation in our patient population. Of 11 children with the diagnosis of juvenile nephronophthisis, 10 demonstrated increased echogenicity with loss of corticomedullary differentiation on initial ultrasound. Only 2 children had a single cyst each. On follow-up ultrasound, 2, 4.5, and 7 years later, 3 patients developed visible renal cysts. We conclude that at presentation the ultrasound finding consistent with the diagnosis of juvenile nephronophthisis is most often that of hyperechogenic kidneys without cysts; namely the lack of cysts does not rule out the diagnosis of juvenile nephronophthisis.Pediatric Nephrology 03/1996; 10(1):22-4. · 2.94 Impact Factor