Significance of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with fracture healing process.
ABSTRACT Fracture healing is a complex bone formation process, and neovascularization may contribute to new bone regeneration. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) mobilization and homing could involve in neovascularization and vasculogenesis. In this study, we investigate the changes of circulating EPC during bone fracture healing, and the possible contribution of EPCs to increased neovascularization and fracture healing. The number of circulating EPCs was monitored in twenty-four patients with long bone traumatic fracture within the first 48 h and at 3, 5, 10, and 14 days post-fracture. The mononuclear cells which isolated from peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood counts of leukocytes and platelets were measured by hematology analyzer. The amount of peripheral EPCs significantly increased in patients with fracture compared to age-matched healthy control subjects within the first 48 h after injury, and peaked at 3 days post-fracture. There was no significant difference in the change trend of early EPCs between male and female, but the number of early EPCs was significantly greater in younger patients compared to older patients. A comparison of the EPCs levels between patients with severe injury (ISS > 16) and patients with mild injury (ISS ≤ 16) revealed no statistically significant difference. The level of early EPCs was inverse correlation with the level of plate after fracture, but no correlation with the level of peripheral leucocytes. These findings suggest traumatic fracture may induce the mobilization of EPCs into the peripheral circulation. The increased EPCs may contribute to neovascularization and involve in fracture healing. © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 30:1860-1866, 2012.
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ABSTRACT: Failures in fracture healing after conventional autologous and allogenic bone grafting are mainly due to poor vascularization. To meet the clinical demand, recent attentions in the regeneration and repair of bone have been focused on the use of stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and circulating skeletal stem cells. Circulating stem cells are currently paid a lot of attention due to their ease of clinical setting and high potential for osteogenesis and angiogenesis. In this report, we focus on the first proof-of-principle experiments demonstrating the collaborative characteristics of circulating CD34+ cells, known as endothelial and hematopoietic progenitor cell-rich population, which are capable to differentiate into both endothelial cells and osteoblasts. Transplantation of circulating CD34+ cells provides a favorable environment for fracture healing via angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and osteogenesis, finally leading to functional recovery from fracture. Based on a series of basic studies, we performed a phase 1/2 clinical trial of autologous CD34+ cell transplantation in patients with tibial or femoral nonunions and reported the safety and efficacy of this novel therapy. In this review, the current concepts and strategies in circulating CD34+ cell-based therapy and its potential applications for bone repair will be highlighted.Tissue Engineering Part B Reviews 12/2013; · 4.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Circulating CD34+ progenitor cells () gained importance in the field of regenerative medicine due to their potential to home in on injury sites and differentiate into cells of both endothelial and osteogenic lineages. In this study, we analyzed the mobilization kinetics and the numbers of CD34+, CD31+, CD45+, and CD133+ cells in twenty polytrauma patients (n = 13 male, n = 7 female, mean age 46.5±17.2 years, mean injury severity score (ISS) 35.8±12.5 points). In addition, the endothelial differentiation capacity of enriched CD34+cells was assessed by analyzing DiI-ac-LDL/lectin uptake, the expression of endothelial markers, and the morphological characteristics of these cells in Matrigel and spheroid cultures. We found that on days 1, 3, and 7 after a major trauma, the number of CD34+cells increased from 6- up to 12-fold (p<0.0001) over the number of CD34+cells from a control population of healthy, age-matched volunteers. The numbers of CD31+ cells were consistently higher on days 1 (1.4-fold, p<0.01) and 7 (1.3-fold, p<0.01), whereas the numbers of CD133+ cell did not change during the time course of investigation. Expression of endothelial marker molecules in CD34+cells was significantly induced in the polytrauma patients. In addition, we show that the CD34+ cell levels in severely injured patients were not correlated with clinical parameters, such as the ISS score, the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score (APACHE II), as well as the sequential organ failure assessment score (SOFA-2). Our results clearly indicate that pro-angiogenic cells are systemically mobilized after polytrauma and that their numbers are sufficient for the development of novel therapeutic models in regenerative medicine.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e97369. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Local statins implant has been shown to promote bone healing, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of local simvastatin implant on bone defect healing; to evaluate the mobilization, migration, and homing of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) induced by simvastatin. We found that local simvastatin implant increased bone formation by 51.8% (week 6) and 64.8% (week 12) compared with polyglycolic acid controls (P < 0.01), as verified by X-ray, CT, and histology. Simvastatin increased migration capacity of BMSCs and EPCs in vitro (P < 0.05). Local simvastatin implant increased mobilization of EPCs to the peripheral blood by 127% revealed by FACS analysis (P < 0.01), and increased osteogenic BMSCs to the peripheral blood dramatically revealed by Alizarin Red-S staining for mineralized nodules formation. Pre-transplanted GFP-transfected BMSCs as a tracing cell and bioluminescence imaging revealed that local simvastatin implant recruited GFP-labeled BMSC. Also, local simvastatin implant induced the HIF-1α and BMP-2 expression. In conclusion, local simvastatin implantation promotes bone defect healing, where the underlying mechanism appears to involve the higher expression of HIF-1α and BMP-2, thus recruit autogenous osteogenic and angiogenetic stem cells to the bone defect area implanted with simvastatin.Biomaterials 09/2013; · 8.31 Impact Factor