Article

Disorganized collagen scaffold interferes with fibroblast mediated deposition of organized extracellular matrix in vitro

Center for Engineering in Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering (Impact Factor: 4.16). 10/2012; 109(10):2683-98. DOI: 10.1002/bit.24533
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Many tissue engineering applications require the remodeling of a degradable scaffold either in vitro or in situ. Although inefficient remodeling or failure to fully remodel the temporary matrix can result in a poor clinical outcome, very few investigations have examined in detail, the interaction of regenerative cells with temporary scaffoldings. In a recent series of investigations, randomly oriented collagen gels were directly implanted into human corneal pockets and followed for 24 months. The resulting remodeling response exhibited a high degree of variability which likely reflects differing regenerative/synthetic capacity across patients. Given this variability, we hypothesize that a disorganized, degradable provisional scaffold could be disruptive to a uniform, organized reconstruction of stromal matrix. In this investigation, two established corneal stroma tissue engineering culture systems (collagen scaffold-based and scaffold-free) were compared to determine if the presence of the disorganized collagen gel influenced matrix production and organizational control exerted by primary human corneal fibroblast cells (PHCFCs). PHCFCs were cultured on thin disorganized reconstituted collagen substrate (RCS--five donors: average age 34.4) or on a bare polycarbonate membrane (five donors: average age 32.4 controls). The organization and morphology of the two culture systems were compared over the long-term at 4, 8, and 11/12 weeks. Construct thickness and extracellular matrix organization/alignment was tracked optically with bright field and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The details of cell/matrix morphology and cell/matrix interaction were examined with standard transmission, cuprolinic blue and quick-freeze/deep-etch electron microscopy. Both the scaffold-free and the collagen-based scaffold cultures produced organized arrays of collagen fibrils. However, at all time points, the amount of organized cell-derived matrix in the scaffold-based constructs was significantly lower than that produced by scaffold-free constructs (controls). We also observed significant variability in the remodeling of RCS scaffold by PHCFCs. PHCFCs which penetrated the RCS scaffold did exert robust local control over secreted collagen but did not appear to globally reorganize the scaffold effectively in the time period of the study. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results demonstrate that the presence of the scaffold appears to interfere with the global organization of the cell-derived matrix. The production of highly organized local matrix by fibroblasts which penetrated the scaffold suggests that there is a mechanism which operates close to the cell membrane capable of controlling fibril organization. Nonetheless, the local control of the collagen alignment produced by cells within the scaffold was not continuous and did not result in overall global organization of the construct. Using a disorganized scaffold as a guide to produce highly organized tissue has the potential to delay the production of useful matrix or prevent uniform remodeling. The results of this study may shed light on the recent attempts to use disorganized collagenous matrix as a temporary corneal replacement in vivo which led to a variable remodeling response.

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