Phytanic acid disturbs mitochondrial homeostasis in heart of young rats: a possible pathomechanism of cardiomyopathy in Refsum disease.
ABSTRACT Phytanic acid (Phyt) accumulates in tissues and biological fluids of patients affected by Refsum disease. Although cardiomyopathy is an important clinical manifestation of this disorder, the mechanisms of heart damage are poorly known. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro effects of Phyt on important parameters of oxidative stress in heart of young rats. Phyt significantly increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels (P < 0.001) and carbonyl formation (P < 0.01), indicating that this fatty acid induces lipid and protein oxidative damage, respectively. In contrast, Phyt did not alter sulfhydryl oxidation. Phyt also decreased glutathione (GSH) concentrations (P < 0.05), an important non-enzymatic antioxidant defense. Moreover, Phyt increased 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin oxidation (DCFH) (P < 0.01), reflecting increased reactive species generation. We also found that the induced lipid and protein oxidative damage, as well as the decreased GSH levels and increased DCFH oxidation provoked by this fatty acid were prevented or attenuated by the reactive oxygen species scavengers melatonin, trolox, and GSH, but not by the nitric oxide inhibitor N: (ω)-nitro-L: -arginine methyl ester, suggesting that reactive oxygen species were involved in these effects. Next, we verified that Phyt strongly inhibited NADH-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex I-III) activity (P < 0.001) in heart supernatants, and decreased membrane potential and the NAD(P)H pool in heart mitochondria, indicating that Phyt acts as a metabolic inhibitor and as an uncoupler of the electron transport chain. Therefore, it can be presumed that disturbance of cellular energy and redox homeostasis induced by Phyt may possibly contribute to the cardiomyopathy found in patients affected by Refsum disease.
- SourceAvailable from: Pablo Andres Evelson[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the possibility of obtaining total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) indexes in homogenates and their cytosolic fractions by a procedure based on the quenching of luminol luminescence induced by the thermolysis of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane). Measurements were performed in rat brain, liver, kidney, and heart homogenates. TRAP indexes can be easily determined both in homogenates and their cytosolic fractions. The results obtained indicate that heart homogenates are the least and liver homogenates the most protected of the systems considered. Glutathione is the measured antioxidant that contributes the most to TRAP values, while uric acid makes a significant contribution only in liver. A calculation of theoretical TRAP values from the measured concentrations of the main antioxidants (glutathione, uric acid, ascorbic acid, and alpha-tocopherol) for the different homogenates shows that, in most tissues (liver, brain, and kidney), nearly 50% of the experimentally determined TRAP values are not accounted for. This difference is mainly due to the contribution of proteins to the measured TRAP.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 05/2001; 388(2):261-6. · 3.37 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The saturated branched chain fatty acid, phytanic acid, a degradation product of chlorophyll, accumulates in Refsum disease, an inherited peroxisomal disorder with neurological clinical features. To elucidate the pathogenic mechanism, we investigated the influence of phytanic acid on cellular physiology of rat hippocampal astrocytes. Phytanic acid (100 microM) induced an immediate transient increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, followed by a plateau. The peak of this biphasic Ca2+ response was largely independent of extracellular Ca2+, indicating activation of cellular Ca2+ stores by phytanic acid. Phytanic acid depolarized mitochondria without causing in situ swelling of mitochondria. The slow decrease of mitochondrial potential is not consistent with fast and simultaneous opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. However, phytanic acid induced substantial generation of reactive oxygen species. Phytanic acid caused astroglia cell death after a few hours of exposure. We suggest that the cytotoxic effect of phytanic acid seems to be due to a combined action on Ca2+ regulation, mitochondrial depolarization, and increased ROS generation in brain cells.Neurobiology of Disease 03/2005; 18(1):110-8. · 5.62 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Quantification of pristanic acid, phytanic acid, and very long chain fatty acids (i.e., hexacosanoic, tetracosanoic, and docosanoic acids) in plasma is the primary method for investigateing a multitude of peroxisomal disorders (PDs). Typically based on GC-MS, existing methods are time-consuming and laborious. In this paper, we present a rapid and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method based on derivatization with 4-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethylaminosulfonyl]-7-(2-aminoethylamino)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DAABD-AE). Derivatization was undertaken to improve the poor mass spectrometric properties of these fatty acids. Analytes in plasma (20 mul) were hydrolyzed, extracted, and derivatized with DAABD-AE in approximately 2 h. Derivatives were separated on a reverse-phase column and detected by positive-ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with a 5 min injection-to-injection time. Calibration plots were linear over ranges that cover physiological and pathological concentrations. Intraday (n = 12) and interday (n = 10) variations at low and high concentrations were less than 9.2%. Reference intervals in normal plasma (n = 250) were established for each compound and were in agreement with the literature. Using specimens from patients with established diagnosis (n = 20), various PDs were reliably detected. In conclusion, this method allows for the detection of at least nine PDs in a 5 min analytical run. Furthermore, this derivatization approach is potentially applicable to other disease markers carrying the carboxylic group.The Journal of Lipid Research 09/2008; 49(8):1855-62. · 4.39 Impact Factor