Roles of endoplasmic reticulum and energetic stress in disturbed sleep.
ABSTRACT Sleep disturbances are contributing factors to health risk for several diseases including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, depression, and stroke. On a molecular level, sleep disturbances that incur sleep loss and sleep fragmentation result in cellular stress, inflammation, and an impaired immune system. It has been hypothesized that sleep deprivation or prolonged waking leads to increased energy demand and thus energetic stress. Sleep loss and sleep fragmentation are also known to lead to cellular stress specifically endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This review will summarize the current knowledge of the roles of ER and energetic stress during sleep loss and fragmentation that are characteristics of many sleep disturbances. Sleep research pertinent to these specific pathways will be discussed.