Type I IFN-mediated regulation of IL-1 production in inflammatory disorders.
ABSTRACT Although contributing to inflammatory responses and to the development of certain autoimmune pathologies, type I interferons (IFNs) are used for the treatment of viral, malignant, and even inflammatory diseases. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a strongly pyrogenic cytokine and its importance in the development of several inflammatory diseases is clearly established. While the therapeutic use of IL-1 blocking agents is particularly successful in the treatment of innate-driven inflammatory disorders, IFN treatment has mostly been appreciated in the management of multiple sclerosis. Interestingly, type I IFNs exert multifaceted immunomodulatory effects, including the reduction of IL-1 production, an outcome that could contribute to its efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on IL-1 and IFN effects in different inflammatory disorders, the influence of IFNs on IL-1 production, and discuss possible therapeutic avenues based on these observations.