Type I IFN-mediated regulation of IL-1 production in inflammatory disorders.
ABSTRACT Although contributing to inflammatory responses and to the development of certain autoimmune pathologies, type I interferons (IFNs) are used for the treatment of viral, malignant, and even inflammatory diseases. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a strongly pyrogenic cytokine and its importance in the development of several inflammatory diseases is clearly established. While the therapeutic use of IL-1 blocking agents is particularly successful in the treatment of innate-driven inflammatory disorders, IFN treatment has mostly been appreciated in the management of multiple sclerosis. Interestingly, type I IFNs exert multifaceted immunomodulatory effects, including the reduction of IL-1 production, an outcome that could contribute to its efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on IL-1 and IFN effects in different inflammatory disorders, the influence of IFNs on IL-1 production, and discuss possible therapeutic avenues based on these observations.
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ABSTRACT: It is not known whether one or both of the interleukin 1 (IL1) receptors mediates the induction of the DNA-binding protein NF-kappa B. Nuclear extracts of the murine lines EL4.NOB.1 and 70Z/3, which bear the type I (80 kDa) and type II (67 kDa) IL1 receptor, respectively, were analyzed by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. A 265-base pair sequence of the human serum amyloid A gene or a synthetic oligonucleotide each containing the NF-kappa B site were used as the DNA probes. IL1 induction of NF-kappa B was rapid (optimal at 15-30 min) and transient in both cell types. The IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1ra), which binds strongly to the type I receptor, inhibited the NF-kappa B response in both cell lines. IL1ra did not bind to the type II receptor on 70Z/3 cells as judged by competition for binding with 125I-IL1 alpha. When 125I-IL1ra binding to 70Z/3 cells was measured, a small number (10/cell) of high affinity sites (Kd = 5 x 10(-12) M) were detected. These were likely to have been type I receptor because an antibody to this inhibited the NF-kappa B induction in 70Z/3 cells (as well as EL4). Potential signal transduction mechanisms involving protein kinase C or oxygen radicals were studied. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced NF-kappa B with a similar time course to IL1 in 70Z/3 but only after 4 h in EL4.IL1 was unaffected by a protein kinase C inhibitor (staurosporine). H2O2 did not mimic IL1, and IL1 was not inhibited by an antioxidant. The type I receptor mediates the induction of NF-kappa B in response to IL1 via a signaling mechanism that still remains to be identified.Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/1992; 267(22):15836-41. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An increased ratio of T helper type 2 (Th2)- vs Th1-like cells contributes to the immune dysregulation in allergic disease situations and in many chronic infections, including AIDS. Th2-type immune responses are characterized by Th cells that produce increased levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and decreased levels of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). The induction of either a Th1- or a Th2-like phenotype may be critically controlled by the antigen-presenting cells and their cytokines, e.g., IFN-alpha. In this study we have determined the frequencies of potential IL-4- and/or IFN-gamma-producing T cells in the peripheral blood of randomly selected healthy individuals, and analyzed whether IFN-alpha controls IL-4 and/or IFN-gamma production. Purified CD4+ or CD8+ T cells were stimulated for 24 h via the T cell receptor/CD3 complex in the presence or absence of IFN-alpha, and single IL-4- and IFN-gamma-secreting cells were detected in enzyme-linked immunospot assays. In the absence of IFN-alpha, CD4 cells produced IFN-gamma at frequencies of 1:50-300, and produced IL-4 at frequencies of 1:110-<1:100,000. Addition of IFN-alpha during the activation of CD4 cells increased the levels of IFN-gamma mRNA. As a consequence, the numbers of IFN-gamma-producing CD4 cells and the amounts of secreted IFN-gamma increased 10-fold. In contrast, IFN-alpha did not increase the frequency of IL-4-secreting CD4 cells. In the absence of IFN-alpha, addition of exogenous IL-4 to cultures of CD4 cells suppressed IFN-gamma secretion by 70%. However, in the presence of IFN-alpha, IL-4 did not display any suppressive effect. Compared with CD4 cells, CD8 cells produced IFN-gamma more frequently (1:5-10) but IL-4 less frequently (1:5,300 to < 1:100,000). IFN-alpha did not display any effect on the frequency of either IFN-gamma or IL-4 production by CD8 cells. Taken together the results indicate that IFN-alpha increases the frequency of IFN-gamma-secreting CD4 Th cells and antagonizes the suppressive effect of IL-4 on IFN-gamma production. As a consequence, IFN-alpha may favor the induction and maintenance of Th1-like cells and thereby counteract Th2-driven allergic immune responses.Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/1993; 178(5):1655-63. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown that exposure to cigarette smoke and/or house dust mite (HDM) can lead to increased airway inflammation in susceptible individuals. The underlying mechanisms, however, are not defined. To investigate the interaction between cigarette smoke and HDM allergen on mediator release from primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. Confluent human bronchial epithelial cell cultures were exposed to cigarette smoke in the absence or presence of HDM allergen and investigated for the release of IL-8, IL-1beta, and sICAM-1. Damage to the epithelial cells themselves was assessed by release of 51Cr. On separate occasions, we investigated the effect of PTL11028, a highly potent and selective Der p1 inhibitor, on HDM allergen-induced release of IL-8, following activation of HDM allergen by incubation with cysteine. The effect of cigarette smoke exposure on the stability of these released mediators in prepared solutions in the absence/presence of reduced glutathione was also studied. Both HDM allergens and short-term (20 min) cigarette smoke exposure led to a significantly increased release of IL-8, IL-1beta and sICAM-1 from the epithelial cell cultures. Longer exposure (1-6 h) to cigarette smoke led to a dramatic decrease in the amount of these mediators detected in the culture medium. Whilst incubation of epithelial cultures with HDM allergen did not cause any significant change in the release of 51Cr from pre-loaded cells, cigarette smoke on its own led to a marked, exposure and incubation-time dependent increase in the release of 51Cr. Incubation with HDM allergen led to a significant, dose and time-dependent increase in the release of IL-8, which was further enhanced when the allergen extract was pre-activated with cysteine. This effect was completely abrogated by PTL11028, a novel Der p1 inhibitor. Prepared solutions of various concentrations of IL-8, IL-1beta and sICAM-1 exposed to cigarette smoke demonstrated a dramatic exposure time-dependent decrease in the detectable amount of these mediators, an effect which was abrogated by GSH. HDM-induced airway inflammation may include Der p-mediated release of inflammatory mediators from epithelial cells. Additionally, short-term cigarette smoke exposure may induce airway inflammation by release of inflammatory mediators from these cells, an effect which may be potentiated by Der p allergens. Longer term cigarette smoke exposure may cause damage to epithelial cells and changes in the structure of inflammatory mediators.Clinical & Experimental Allergy 03/2001; 31(2):226-38. · 4.79 Impact Factor