Deferasirox-induced renal impairment in children: an increasing concern for pediatricians.

Centre de Référence des Maladies Rénales Rares, Service de Néphrologie et Rhumatologie Pédiatriques, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France, .
Pediatric Nephrology (Impact Factor: 2.94). 04/2012; 27(11):2115-22. DOI: 10.1007/s00467-012-2170-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Deferasirox (DFX) is an oral iron chelator with an established dose-dependent efficacy in transfusion-related iron overload. Whereas emerging long-term data confirm the safety of the drug, with transient moderate elevation of serum creatinine level, several authors have reported renal tubular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate tubular and glomerular function before and after the initiation of DFX therapy in a pediatric patient population.
Ten children (4 girls, mean age 12.4 ± 3.9 years) enrolled in a routine blood transfusion program were treated with 24.8 ± 9.6 mg/kg per day of DFX, and renal function was assessed before and 17.2 ± 8.9 months after the initiation of DFX therapy.
Prior to treatment with DFX, all patients had a normal glomerular function rate (GFR) (125 ± 15 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and normal tubular function. Following the initiation of DFX therapy, the GFR decreased by approximately 20 % with one patient with a GFR of <80 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) and seven patients with a GFR of <100 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Two patients experienced a generalized proximal tubular dysfunction whereas nine patients presented at least one sign of proximal tubular dysfunction.
Renal toxicity is a frequent adverse event of DFX treatment, presenting as both glomerular and proximal dysfunction. A routine renal assessment is therefore required to prevent chronic kidney disease that may result from prolonged tubular injury.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: According to global annual estimates hunger/malnutrition is the major cause of death (36 of 62 million). Cardiovascular diseases and cancer (5.44 of 13.43 million) are the major causes of death in developed countries, while lower respiratory tract infections, human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, diarrhoeal disease, malaria and tuberculosis (10.88 of 27.12 million) are the major causes of death in developing countries with more than 70% of deaths occurring in children. The majority of approximately 800 million people with other rare diseases, including 100000 children born with thalassaemia annually receive no treatment. There are major ethical dilemmas in dealing with global health issues such as poverty and the treatment of orphan and rare diseases. Of approximately 50000 drugs about 10% are orphan drugs, with annual sales of the latter approaching 100 billion USD. In comparison, the annual revenue in 2009 from the top 12 pharmaceutical companies in Western countries was 445 billion USD and the top drug, atorvastatin, reached 100 billion USD. In the same year, the total government expenditure for health in the developing countries was 410 billion USD with only 6%-7% having been received as aid from developed countries. Drugs cost the National Health Service in the United Kingdom more than 20 billion USD or 10% of the annual health budget. Uncontrollable drug prices and marketing policies affect global health budgets, clinical practice, patient safety and survival. Fines of 5.3 billion USD were imposed on two pharmaceutical companies in the United States, the regulatory authority in France was replaced and clinicians were charged with bribery in order to overcome recent illegal practises affecting patient care. High expenditure for drug development is mainly related to marketing costs. However, only 2 million USD was spent developing the drug deferiprone (L1) for thalassaemia up to the stage of multicentre clinical trials. The criteria for drug development, price levels and use needs to be readdressed to improve drug safety and minimise costs. New global health policies based on cheaper drugs can help the treatment of many categories of orphan and rare diseases and millions of orphan patients in developing and developed countries.
    World journal of methodology. 09/2014; 4(3):163-88.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Historically, renal involvement has not been a commonly recognized complication in patients with β-thalassemia major (β-TM). Herein, we studied the impact of iron overload on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by cystatin C based GFR (Cyst C eGFR). We enrolled 149 patients with β-TM in a cross sectional study in a single center in Oman. We investigated the correlation between measurement of serum ferritin and Cyst C eGFR. We used univariable linear regression to study the impact of serum ferritin on Cyst C eGFR and backwards stepwise regression to adjust for potential confounders. We included 78 males and 71 females with a mean age of 17.3 ± 9 years (range 2.5–38.5). Seventeen patients had diabetes mellitus. Patients were taking deferiprone (DFP) and deferoxamine (DFO) (26 patients), DFP (58 patients), deferasirox (DFX) (62 patients) and one patient was taking only DFO. There was a very weak negative linear relationship between serum ferritin and Cyst C eGFR (correlation coefficient −0.25). In the univariable analyses, serum ferritin (p = 0.004), diabetes status (p < 0.001) and chelation therapy (p < 0.001) were statistically significant. In the multivariable model, age (p = 0.033), chelation with DFX (p = 0.05) and diabetes status (p < 0.001) were statistically significant. We found a very weak inverse linear correlation between serum ferritin and Cyst C eGFR. However, when concomitant use of chelation therapy was considered, serum ferritin did not associate with glomerular function. Prospective and larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.
    Hemoglobin 07/2014; · 0.89 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The success that has been made in the care of patients with thalassemia has led to the emergence of unrecognized complications including several renal abnormalities. Chronic anemia and iron overload as well as the use of iron chelator are believed to lie behind these abnormalities. Many investigators document the presence of tubular dysfunction and abnormalities in glomerular filtration rate in these patients. In this review we will discuss the updates in the diagnosis, pathogenesis and prevention of renal complications of thalassemia.
    American journal of blood research. 01/2014; 4(1):1-6.