Mitochondrial dynamics and motility inside living vascular endothelial cells: role of bioenergetics.
ABSTRACT The mitochondrial network is dynamic with conformations that vary between a tubular continuum and a fragmented state. The equilibrium between mitochondrial fusion/fission, as well as the organelle motility, determine network morphology and ultimately mitochondrial/cell function. Network morphology has been linked with the energy state in different cell types. In this study, we examined how bioenergetic factors affect mitochondrial dynamics/motility in cultured vascular endothelial cells (ECs). ECs were transduced with mitochondria-targeted green fluorescent protein (mito-GFP) and exposed to inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) or ATP synthesis. Time-lapse fluorescence videos were acquired and a mathematical program that calculates size and speed of each mitochondrial object at each time frame was developed. Our data showed that inner mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)), ATP produced by glycolysis, and, to a lesser degree, ATP produced by mitochondria are critical for maintaining the mitochondrial network, and different metabolic stresses induce distinct morphological patterns (e.g., mitochondrial depolarization is necessary for "donut" formation). Mitochondrial movement, characterized by Brownian diffusion with occasional bursts in displacement magnitude, was inhibited under the same conditions that resulted in increased fission. Hence, imaging/mathematical analysis shed light on the relationship between bioenergetics and mitochondrial network morphology; the latter may determine EC survival under metabolic stress.
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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause mortality is largely predicted by physical fitness. Exercise stimulates vascular mitochondrial biogenesis via endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), sirtuins (SIRTs), and PPARγ co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), a response absent in diabetes and hypertension. We hypothesized that an agent regulating eNOS in the context of diabetes could reconstitute exercise mediated signaling to mitochondrial biogenesis. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) stimulates eNOS and blood flow; we employed saxagliptin, an inhibitor of GLP-1 degradation, to test whether vascular mitochondrial adaptation to exercise in diabetes could be restored. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese, type 2 diabetes model, and Wistar controls were exposed to an 8-day exercise intervention with or without saxagliptin (10mg/kg/d). We evaluated the impact of exercise and saxagliptin on mitochondrial proteins and signaling pathways in aorta. Mitochondrial protein expression increased with exercise in the Wistar aorta, and decreased or remained unchanged in the GK animals. GK rats treated with saxagliptin plus exercise showed increased expression of mitochondrial complexes, cytochrome c, eNOS, nNOS, PGC-1α, and UCP3 proteins. Notably, a three week saxagliptin plus exercise intervention significantly increased running time in the GK rats. These data suggest that saxagliptin restores vascular mitochondrial adaptation to exercise in a diabetic rodent model and may augment the impact of exercise on the vasculature.Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 09/2014; DOI:10.1097/FJC.0000000000000170 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The stromal vasculature in tumors is a vital conduit of nutrients and oxygen for cancer cells. To date, the vast majority of studies have focused on unraveling the genetic basis of vessel sprouting (also termed angiogenesis). In contrast to the widely studied changes in cancer cell metabolism, insight in the metabolic regulation of angiogenesis is only just emerging. These studies show that metabolic pathways in endothelial cells (ECs) importantly regulate angiogenesis in conjunction with genetic signals. In this review, we will highlight these emerging insights in EC metabolism and discuss them in perspective of cancer cell metabolism. While it is generally assumed that cancer cells have unique metabolic adaptations, not shared by healthy non-transformed cells, we will discuss parallels and highlight differences between endothelial and cancer cell metabolism and consider possible novel therapeutic opportunities arising from targeting both cancer and endothelial cells.09/2014; 2:19. DOI:10.1186/2049-3002-2-19
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial morphology and function are coupled in healthy cells, during pathological conditions and (adaptation to) endogenous and exogenous stress. In this sense mitochondrial shape can range from small globular compartments to complex filamentous networks, even within the same cell. Understanding how mitochondrial morphological changes (i.e. "mitochondrial dynamics") are linked to cellular (patho) physiology is currently the subject of intense study and requires detailed quantitative information. During the last decade, various computational approaches have been developed for automated 2-dimensional (2D) analysis of mitochondrial morphology and number in microscopy images. Although these strategies are well suited for analysis of adhering cells with a flat morphology they are not applicable for thicker cells, which require a three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition and analysis procedure. Here we developed and validated an automated image analysis algorithm allowing simultaneous 3D quantification of mitochondrial morphology and network properties in human endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cells expressing a mitochondria-targeted green fluorescence protein (mitoGFP) were visualized by 3D confocal microscopy and mitochondrial morphology was quantified using both the established 2D method and the new 3D strategy. We demonstrate that both analyses can be used to characterize and discriminate between various mitochondrial morphologies and network properties. However, the results from 2D and 3D analysis were not equivalent when filamentous mitochondria in normal HUVECs were compared with circular/spherical mitochondria in metabolically stressed HUVECs treated with rotenone (ROT). 2D quantification suggested that metabolic stress induced mitochondrial fragmentation and loss of biomass. In contrast, 3D analysis revealed that the mitochondrial network structure was dissolved without affecting the amount and size of the organelles. Thus, our results demonstrate that 3D imaging and quantification are crucial for proper understanding of mitochondrial shape and topology in non-flat cells. In summary, we here present an integrative method for unbiased 3D quantification of mitochondrial shape and network properties in mammalian cells.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e101365. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101365 · 3.53 Impact Factor