Does obesity affect outcomes in patients undergoing esophagectomy for cancer? A meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT The incidence of esophageal carcinoma and the global prevalence of obesity are both increasing. As a result, there is an increased number of esophagectomies being performed on obese patients. The identification of specific complications in obese patients undergoing esophagectomy may allow improved risk assessment and postoperative management to reduce morbidity and mortality. This meta-analysis aimed to determine whether obese patients are at increased risk of postoperative complications, mortality, and compromised survival compared to non-obese patients following esophageal resection.
A Medline, Embase, Ovid, and Cochrane database search was performed on all articles between January 1980 and January 2012 comparing post-esophagectomy outcomes between obese and non-obese patients. This study was conducted in accordance with the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration and the Quality of Reporting of Meta-Analyses guidelines.
There was no significant difference between obese and non-obese patients with respect to extent of tumor resection, cardiorespiratory complications, anastomotic leakage, reoperation rates, wound infection, or postoperative mortality. Meta-regression analysis showed that diabetes in obese patients was associated with a significant impact on the risk of anastomotic leakage (coefficient = -7.94 [-15.24-0.65, P = 0.03) and atrial fibrillation (coefficient = -6.94 [-12.79-1.10], P = 0.02). Overall, obese patients had significantly better long-term survival than non-obese patients (Hazard Ratio = 0.78 [0.64-0.96], P = 0.02).
In patients who are eligible for surgery, obesity alone does not increase risk of postoperative complications or mortality and should not be an independent contraindication for esophagectomy. However, the presence of diabetes mellitus in conjunction with obesity may be associated with increased risk of anastomotic leakage and atrial fibrillation. Because of the adverse physiological remodeling in obesity, surgeons should maintain a low threshold for the investigation and management of complications and ensure meticulous management of co-morbidities. Obesity may also improve long-term postoperative survival after esophageal surgery, although further studies with higher levels of evidence are necessary to fully determine any advantageous effects of obesity following oncological esophageal surgery.
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ABSTRACT: Obesity has correlated with surgical outcome in patients undergoing elective surgery for various cancers. This relationship has not been examined for gastric cancer surgery performed at a specialized high-volume center. Data from 562 consecutive patients treated with potentially curative distal gastrectomy between 1993 and 1999 were used. Patients were assigned to 2 groups according to a combination of Japanese and Western criteria for obesity (group A, body mass index < 25 for men and < 22 for women; or group B, body mass index > or = 27). Relationships between obesity and clinical variables were analyzed. Two hundred and five patients (29.4%) were obese by Japanese cutoff values; only 50 (7.2%) were obese by Western standards. A significant difference in blood loss and operative time was noted between groups. Intra-abdominal infection was more frequent for group B, leading to significantly longer hospitalization. Lymph node yield was significantly smaller in group B, but no influence of obesity on long-term survival was observed. Obesity can increase duration of surgery, volume of blood loss, and incidence of surgical complications, but does not affect long-term survival.Hepato-gastroenterology 51(58):1225-8. · 0.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In systematic reviews and meta-analyses, time-to-event outcomes are most appropriately analysed using hazard ratios (HRs). In the absence of individual patient data (IPD), methods are available to obtain HRs and/or associated statistics by carefully manipulating published or other summary data. Awareness and adoption of these methods is somewhat limited, perhaps because they are published in the statistical literature using statistical notation. This paper aims to 'translate' the methods for estimating a HR and associated statistics from published time-to-event-analyses into less statistical and more practical guidance and provide a corresponding, easy-to-use calculations spreadsheet, to facilitate the computational aspects. A wider audience should be able to understand published time-to-event data in individual trial reports and use it more appropriately in meta-analysis. When faced with particular circumstances, readers can refer to the relevant sections of the paper. The spreadsheet can be used to assist them in carrying out the calculations. The methods cannot circumvent the potential biases associated with relying on published data for systematic reviews and meta-analysis. However, this practical guide should improve the quality of the analysis and subsequent interpretation of systematic reviews and meta-analyses that include time-to-event outcomes.Trials 02/2007; 8:16. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is often considered to be a significant risk factor for postoperative mortality when selecting candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We included all patients undergoing a first isolated CABG at the Karolinska Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden, between 1980 and 1995 (n = 6728). Patients were categorized on the basis of body mass index (BMI): non-overweight (BMI <25 kg/m2), overweight (25 kg/m2 < or = BMI <30 kg/m2), and obese (BMI > or =30 kg/m2). Multivariate Cox regression was used to assess the risk of re-operation for bleeding, deep sternal wound infection, and early (< or =30 days) and late (< or =5 years) mortality rates. The average length of follow-up was 6.5 years. There were 252 re-operations for bleeding, 53 deep sternal wound infections, and 628 deaths. Patients who were obese had a significantly lower risk of re-operation for bleeding (risk ratio [RR], 0.32; 95% CI, 0.19-0.53), but a greater risk of deep sternal wound infection (RR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.21-5.88) compared with patients who were not overweight. However, patients who were obese and patients who were not overweight experienced similar 30-day (RR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.34-1.27), 1-year (RR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.29-1.10), and 5-year mortality rates (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.66-1.25). Results for patients who were overweight were consistent with those of patients who were obese. Patients who are obese are not at a greater risk of early and late mortality after CABG compared with patients who are not overweight, although they appear to have a lower risk of re-operation for bleeding and a greater risk of deep sternal wound infection. Therefore, obesity per se is not a contraindication for CABG.American heart journal 09/2003; 146(3):555-60. · 4.65 Impact Factor