Sleep: An Important Factor in Stress-Health Models

Stress and Health (Impact Factor: 1.81). 08/2010; 26(3):204-214. DOI: 10.1002/smi.1304


A growing body of literature supports the notion that psychological stress negatively impacts physical health. In parallel to this programme of stress/health investigations, researchers are demonstrating the deleterious health effects of poor sleep. The current study simultaneously examines the association of both stress and sleep with health. Two hundred and eighteen subjects completed an anonymous survey packet that included stress, sleep and health measures. Psychological stress (as assessed by both life-events and by self-perceived stress), daytime sleepiness and poor sleep quality, but not sleep quantity, were all negatively associated with health. A regression model that integrated both stress measures was a statistically significant predictor of health. Adding the sleep measures to the stress-health model accounted for a statistically significantly greater proportion of the variance in health scores, with the stress + sleep model accounting for 39–56 per cent of the variance in health scores depending on the health measure used. These results suggest that studies of stress and health may benefit from the inclusion of sleep measures and that, from a practical standpoint, poor sleep might be best understood not simply as a sequela of psychological stress but rather as a factor that should be actively addressed as part of the treatment programme. Copyright

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    • "Bader et al. (2011) found that exposure to a stressful video led to poorer sleep, particularly if it activated memories of stressful life events. Regarding health, Benham (2010) found that sleep variables increased the prediction of physical symptoms by 17–26% over and above the influence of stress. The workplace was another commonly researched context here (Barber, Grawitch, & Munz, 2012; Barber & Munz, 2011; Pereira & Elfering, 2014; Pereira et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Keywords:sleep;stress;health
    Stress and Health 12/2014; 30(5). DOI:10.1002/smi.2605 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    • "Alternatively, work engagement provides motivation for workers to allocate their resources to the work domain because they find such resource expenditures to be psychologically rewarding and fulfilling (Kahn, 1990, 1992). Following COR theory, good sleep hygiene practices may serve as a way to replenish and build emotional, mental and physical resources (Barber et al., 2010a; Benham, 2010; Hagger, 2010) that are used to effectively respond to work demands. As mentioned previously, research has shown that poor sleep hygiene may decrease resource replenishment, as it predicts subsequently higher emotional reactivity (Hamilton et al., 2007; Zohar et al., 2005), burnout (Ekstedt et al., 2009) and poorer self-regulatory functioning (Barber & Munz, 2011; Bates et al., 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has emphasized facets of both the organizational environment and individual differences as predictors of work engagement. This study explored sleep hygiene as another important behavioural factor that may be related to work engagement. With a sample of 328 adult workers, we tested a multiple mediator model in which sleep hygiene predicts work engagement through one's appraisals of resource depletion stemming from demands (psychological strain) and general self-regulatory capacity (self-control). Results indicated that individuals who frequently engaged in poor sleep hygiene behaviours had lower self-regulatory capacity, experienced higher subjective depletion and were less engaged at work. Additionally, the path from poor sleep hygiene to decreased work engagement was attributed to perceptions of personal resources that are needed to exert self-regulatory energy at work. This is consistent with current self-regulatory theories suggesting that individuals have a limited amount of resources to allocate to demands and that the depletion of these resources can lead to stress and lower self-regulatory functioning in response to other demands. Specifically, poor sleep hygiene results in the loss of self-regulatory resources needed to be engaged in work tasks by impairing the after-work recovery process. Practical and research implications regarding sleep hygiene interventions for well-being and productivity improvement are discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Stress and Health 10/2012; DOI:10.1002/smi.2468 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    • "Further exploration of this subject is desirable, since poor sleep affects major physiological and psychological functions, particularly in the elderly [7-9]. Insomnia is assumed to play a crucial role in the complex relationship between stress and health [10]. By undermining regulatory systems and immune functions in its wake, chronic insomnia can aggravate other acute and chronic diseases, which, in turn, may impair sleep quality. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Until now, insomnia has not been much of interest in epidemiological neighbourhood studies, although literature provides evidence enough for insomnia-related mechanisms being potentially dependent on neighbourhood contexts. Besides, studies have shown differences in sleep along individual social characteristics that might render residents more vulnerable to neighbourhood contextual exposures. Given the role of exposure duration and changes in the relationship between neighbourhoods and health, we studied associations of neighbourhood unemployment and months under residential turnover with insomnia by covering ten years of residential history of nearly 3,000 urban residents in the Ruhr Area, Germany. Methods Individual data were retrieved from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, a population-based study of randomly chosen participants from adjacent cities, which contains self-rated insomnia symptoms and individual social characteristics. Participants’ residential addresses were retrospectively assessed using public registries. We built individually derived exposure measures informing about mean neighbourhood unemployment rates and months under high residential turnover. These measures were major predictors in multivariate logistic regressions modelling the association between social neighbourhood characteristics and insomnia in the whole sample and subgroups defined by low income, low education, social isolation, and change of residence. Traffic-related noise, age, gender, economic activity, and education were considered as covariates. Results Nearly 12 per cent of the participants complained about insomnia. Associations of neighbourhood unemployment with insomnia were more consistent than those of residential turnover in the whole sample (adjusted OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.00-2.03 for neighbourhood unemployment and OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.78-2.25 for residential turnover in the highest exposure categories). In low-income and socially isolated participants, neighbourhood unemployment odds of reporting insomnia were particularly elevated (adjusted OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.39-6.02 and OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.11-9.96, respectively). Less educated participants displayed relatively high odds of reporting insomnia throughout all upper neighbourhood unemployment exposure categories. Change of residence weakened associations, whereas undisrupted exposure sharpened them by trend. Conclusions Our findings hint at multiple stressors being effective in both the neighbourhood context and individual resident, possibly reflecting precarious life situations undermining residents’ sleep and health chances. Moreover, our results suggest a temporal dependency in the association between neighbourhood and insomnia.
    BMC Public Health 09/2012; 12(1):810. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-810 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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