TumorHoPe: A Database of Tumor Homing Peptides

Bioinformatics Centre, CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector 39A, Chandigarh, India.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 04/2012; 7(4):e35187. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035187
Source: PubMed


Cancer is responsible for millions of immature deaths every year and is an economical burden on developing countries. One of the major challenges in the present era is to design drugs that can specifically target tumor cells not normal cells. In this context, tumor homing peptides have drawn much attention. These peptides are playing a vital role in delivering drugs in tumor tissues with high specificity. In order to provide service to scientific community, we have developed a database of tumor homing peptides called TumorHoPe.
TumorHoPe is a manually curated database of experimentally validated tumor homing peptides that specifically recognize tumor cells and tumor associated microenvironment, i.e., angiogenesis. These peptides were collected and compiled from published papers, patents and databases. Current release of TumorHoPe contains 744 peptides. Each entry provides comprehensive information of a peptide that includes its sequence, target tumor, target cell, techniques of identification, peptide receptor, etc. In addition, we have derived various types of information from these peptide sequences that include secondary/tertiary structure, amino acid composition, and physicochemical properties of peptides. Peptides in this database have been found to target different types of tumors that include breast, lung, prostate, melanoma, colon, etc. These peptides have some common motifs including RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) and NGR (Asn-Gly-Arg) motifs, which specifically recognize tumor angiogenic markers. TumorHoPe has been integrated with many web-based tools like simple/complex search, database browsing and peptide mapping. These tools allow a user to search tumor homing peptides based on their amino acid composition, charge, polarity, hydrophobicity, etc.
TumorHoPe is a unique database of its kind, which provides comprehensive information about experimentally validated tumor homing peptides and their target cells. This database will be very useful in designing peptide-based drugs and drug-delivery system. It is freely available at

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Available from: Gajendra Pal Singh Raghava,
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    • "The results of these studies were promising and raised a hope for the fight against these devastating diseases. Keeping in mind the huge pharmacological importance of therapeutic peptides, many databases of therapeutic peptides have been developed so far that include CPPsite (24), APD2 (13), CAMP (12), Brainpeps (25), Quorumpeps (26), TumorHope (27), Hemolytik (28) and DAMPD (14). However, no attempt has been made to catalog APPs and to understand the properties of these peptides. "
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    ABSTRACT: ParaPep is a repository of antiparasitic peptides, which provides comprehensive information related to experimentally validated antiparasitic peptide sequences and their structures. The data were collected and compiled from published research papers, patents and from various databases. The current release of ParaPep holds 863 entries among which 519 are unique peptides. In addition to peptides having natural amino acids, ParaPep also consists of peptides having d-amino acids and chemically modified residues. In ParaPep, most of the peptides have been evaluated for growth inhibition of various species of Plasmodium, Leishmania and Trypanosoma. We have provided comprehensive information about these peptides that include peptide sequence, chemical modifications, stereochemistry, antiparasitic activity, origin, nature of peptide, assay types, type of parasite, mode of action and hemolytic activity. Structures of peptides consisting of natural, as well as modified amino acids have been determined using state-of-the-art software, PEPstr. To facilitate users, various user-friendly web tools, for data fetching, analysis and browsing, have been integrated. We hope that ParaPep will be advantageous in designing therapeutic peptides against parasitic diseases.Database URL:
    Database The Journal of Biological Databases and Curation 01/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1093/database/bau051 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    • "The field of therapeutic peptides is growing very rapidly due to substantial technological progress (1,17). Literature on therapeutic peptides is rapidly adding (18), and therefore in the past few years only, many comprehensive databases of various therapeutic peptides including antimicrobial peptides (5,6), cell-penetrating peptides (19), tumor-homing peptides (20) and quorum-sensing peptides (21) have been developed. In addition, an interesting and useful resource of blood–brain barrier peptides—Brainpeps—(22) has also been developed recently. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hemolytik ( is a manually curated database of experimentally determined hemolytic and non-hemolytic peptides. Data were compiled from a large number of published research articles and various databases like Antimicrobial Peptide Database, Collection of Anti-microbial Peptides, Dragon Antimicrobial Peptide Database and Swiss-Prot. The current release of Hemolytik database contains ∼3000 entries that include ∼2000 unique peptides whose hemolytic activities were evaluated on erythrocytes isolated from as many as 17 different sources. Each entry in Hemolytik provides comprehensive information about a peptide, like its name, sequence, origin, reported function, property such as chirality, types (linear and cyclic), end modifications as well as details pertaining to its hemolytic activity. In addition, tertiary structure of each peptide has been predicted, and secondary structure states have been assigned. To facilitate the scientific community, a user-friendly interface has been developed with various tools for data searching and analysis. We hope, Hemolytik will be useful for researchers working in the field of designing therapeutic peptides.
    Nucleic Acids Research 10/2013; 42(Database issue). DOI:10.1093/nar/gkt1008 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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    • "However, the low molecular weight and the poor immunogenicity observed with peptides may represent an important advantage, particularly for therapies that need prolonged and repeated treatments. Considering the large number of tumor vasculature-homing peptides discovered in the last decade [3, 120] and the promising results obtained so far with the prototypic peptide-cytokine conjugates described here, the development of other conjugates made with different peptides and synergistic cytokines might lead to the development of new therapeutic options for cancer patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: A growing body of evidence suggests that the efficacy of cytokines in cancer therapy can be increased by targeting strategies based on conjugation with ligands that recognize receptors expressed by tumor cells or elements of the tumor microenvironment, including the tumor vasculature. The targeting approach is generally conceived to permit administration of low, yet pharmacologically active, doses of drugs, thereby avoiding toxic reactions. However, it is becoming clear that, in the case of cytokines, this strategy has another inherent advantage, i.e. the possibility of administering extremely low doses that do not activate systemic counter-regulatory mechanisms, which may limit their potential therapeutic effects. This review is focused on the use of tumor vasculature-homing peptides as vehicles for targeted delivery of cytokines to tumor blood vessel. In particular, we provide an overview of peptide-cytokine conjugates made with peptides containing the NGR, RGD, isoDGR or RGR sequences and describe, in more details, the biological and pharmacological properties of NGR-hTNF, a peptide-tumor necrosis factor-α conjugate that is currently being tested in phase II and III clinical studies. The results of preclinical and clinical studies performed with these products suggest that peptide-mediated vascular-targeting is indeed a viable strategy for delivering bioactive amounts of cytokines to tumor endothelial cells without causing the activation of counter-regulatory mechanisms and toxic reactions.
    BioDrugs 06/2013; 27(6). DOI:10.1007/s40259-013-0048-z · 2.99 Impact Factor
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