The adverse effects of air pollution on the nervous system.

Department of Neuroscience, Health Science Institute, Dokuz Eylul University, Inciralti, 35340 Izmir, Turkey.
Journal of Toxicology 01/2012; 2012:782462. DOI: 10.1155/2012/782462
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health.

1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It has been hypothesized that air pollution and ambient noise might impact neurocognitive function. Early studies mostly investigated the associations of air pollution and ambient noise exposure with cognitive development in children. More recently, several studies investigating associations with neurocognitive function, mood disorders, and neurodegenerative disease in adult populations were published, yielding inconsistent results. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on air pollution and noise effects on mental health in adults. We included studies in adult populations (≥18 years old) published in English language in peer-reviewed journals. Fifteen articles related to long-term effects of air pollution and eight articles on long-term effects of ambient noise were extracted. Both exposures were separately shown to be associated with one or several measures of global cognitive function, verbal and nonverbal learning and memory, activities of daily living, depressive symptoms, elevated anxiety, and nuisance. No study considered both exposures simultaneously and few studies investigated progression of neurocognitive decline or psychological factors. The existing evidence generally supports associations of environmental factors with mental health, but does not suffice for an overall conclusion about the independent effect of air pollution and noise. There is a need for studies investigating simultaneously air pollution and noise exposures in association mental health, for longitudinal studies to corroborate findings from cross-sectional analyses, and for parallel toxicological and epidemiological studies to elucidate mechanisms and pathways of action.
    International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2014.08.002 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, have olfaction impairment. These pathologies have also been linked to environmental pollutants. Vanadium is a pollutant, and its toxic mechanisms are related to the production of oxidative stress. In this study, we evaluated the effects of inhaled vanadium on olfaction, the olfactory bulb antioxidant, through histological and ultrastructural changes in granule cells. Mice in control group were made to inhale saline; the experimental group inhaled 0.02-M vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) for 1 hr twice a week for 4 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after inhalation. Olfactory function was evaluated by the odorant test. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) was assayed in olfactory bulbs and processed for rapid Golgi method and ultrastructural analysis. Results show that olfactory function decreased at 4-week vanadium exposure; granule cells showed a decrease in dendritic spine density and increased lipofuscin, Golgi apparatus vacuolation, apoptosis, and necrosis. The activity of GPx and GR in the olfactory bulb was increased compared to that of the controls. Our results demonstrate that vanadium inhalation disturbs olfaction, histology, and the ultrastructure of the granule cells that might be associated with oxidative stress, a risk factor in neurodegenerative diseases. © 2014 by The Author(s).
    Toxicologic Pathology 12/2014; DOI:10.1177/0192623314548668 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background/Aim. Environmental factors may influence the disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of air pollution and seasonal climate factors of any on number of relapses in MS patients during a consecutive 5 years of observation. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed data of MS patients from the town of Nis, hospitalized at the Clinic of Neurology, Clinical Center Nis, Serbia, from 2005 to 2009. Climate data: mean daily sun shining; mean monthly sun shining, mean whole daily cloudiness, daily cloudiness at 7 am, 2 p.m. and 9 p.m. and air pollution expressed by NSR (New Source Review) were obtained from the Meteorology Observatory Nis. Results. During a 5-year of observation there were 260 relapses in 101 MS patients. The number of relapses showed a significantly negative correlation with the number of days with NSR <2 (p = -0.31; p < 0.01) and a positive correlation with the mean whole daily cloudiness (p < 0.05), mean daily cloudiness at 7 a.m. (p < 0.05) and 2 p.m. < 0.01). We found a significantlly positive correlation (p < 0.05) between the reduced number of relapses during the period of high vitamin D season, i.e. July October. There was a statistically significant increase (p < 0.01) of the number of relapses during spring (<(x)over bar> = 6.53; SD = 3.98) compared to the other three seasons. The joint presence of lower number of days with NSR < 2 during low vitamin D season (January-April) correlated with a statistically significant increase of the number of relapses in MS patients (F = 5.06, p < 0.01). Conclusion. The obtained results confirmed the influence of air pollution and climate seasonal conditions on disease relapses in MS patients based on a long-term observation. Lower numbers of days with low air pollution during the periods with low vitamin D (January-April), especially with increased cloudiness at 2 p.m, induce a higher risk of MS relapses in southern continental parts of Europe.
    Vojnosanitetski pregled. Military-medical and pharmaceutical review 01/2014; 72(00):30-30. DOI:10.2298/VSP140121030V · 0.27 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 2, 2014