The Effect of 96-Hour Formalin Fixation on the Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor, and HER2 Expression in Invasive Breast Carcinoma

Department of Pathology, Magee-Womens Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA 15213, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology (Impact Factor: 3.01). 05/2012; 137(5):691-8. DOI: 10.1309/AJCPQRAG67GJRPMT
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We studied the impact of 96 hours of formalin fixation on estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 testing by comparing immunohistochemical results from core biopsy specimens fixed under current American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guidelines with results for corresponding resection samples fixed for 96 hours. Samples enriched with cases showing weak to moderate receptor expression on core biopsy were included in the study. Cases were scored using ASCO/CAP guidelines. Of the 47 cases, only 1 case (2%) showed a qualitative change in result. However, this change was a positive ER result (H score, 1) on the 96-hour fixed resected sample compared with a negative ER result (H score, 0) for the core biopsy. Minimal changes in semiquantitative H scoring were noted for ER and PR that were likely due to tumor heterogeneity and/or intraobserver variability as the variation occurred in both directions. ER, PR, and HER2 immunohistochemical results should be considered valid for cases fixed up to 96 hours.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review is designed to highlight several key challenges in the diagnosis of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (her2)-positive breast cancer currently faced by pathologists in Canada: Pre-analysis issues affecting the accuracy of her2 testing in non-excision sample types: core-needle biopsies, effusion samples, fine-needle aspirates, and bone metastasesher2 testing of core-needle biopsies compared with surgical specimensCriteria for retesting her2 status upon disease recurrenceLiterature searches for each topic were carried out using the medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and biosis databases. In addition, the congress databases of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (2005-2011) and the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (2007-2011) were searched for relevant abstracts.All authors are expert breast pathologists with extensive experience of her2 testing, and several participated in the development of Canadian her2 testing guidelines. For each topic, the authors present an evaluation of the current data available for the guidance of pathology practice, with recommendations for the optimization or improvement of her2 testing practice.
    Current Oncology 12/2012; 19(6):315-23. DOI:10.3747/co.19.1173 · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Currently in clinic, people use hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain) and immunohistochemistry methods to identify the generation and genre of cancers for human pathological samples. Since these methods are inaccurate and time consuming, developing a rapid and accurate method to detect cancer is urgently demanded. In our study, binding peptides for lung cancer cell line A549 were identified using bacteria surface display method. With those binding peptides for A549 cells on the surface, the fluorescent bacteria (Escherichia coli with stably expressed green fluorescent protein) were served as specific detecting reagents for the diagnosis of cancers. The binding activity of peptide-fluorescent bacteria complex was confirmed by detached cancer cells, attached cancer cells and mice tumor xenograft samples. A unique fixation method was developed for peptide-bacteria complex in order to make this complex more feasible for the clinic use. This peptide-fluorescent bacteria complex has great potential to become a new diagnostic tool for clinical application.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54467. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0054467 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HER2 overexpression and anti-HER2 agents represent probably the best story of success of individualized therapy in breast cancer. Due to the important therapeutic implications, the issue under the spotlight has been, since ever, the correct identification of true HER2 positivity on tissue specimens. Eligibility to anti-HER2 agents is strictly dependent on the demonstration of HER2 overexpression (by immunohistochemistry) or of HER2 gene amplification by in situ techniques (fluorescence in situ hybridization, FISH), however there are controversial issues involving cases with "equivocal" HER2 status based on conventional techniques (about 20% of specimens). In terms of HER2 expression a major debate is the presence of full-length and truncated forms of the protein and controversial clinical data have been reported on the therapeutic implications of these HER2 fragments. In terms of HER2 gene assessment, the occurrence of amplification of the chromosome 17 centromeric region (CEP17) has been proven responsible for misleading HER2 FISH results, precluding anti-HER2 based therapy to some patients. Finally HER2 activating mutations have been recently described as a biological mechanisms alternative to HER2 gene amplification. In this review we will focus on the controversies that pathologists and oncologists routinely face in the attempt to design the most tailored treatment for breast cancer patients. We will focus on the HER2 gene and on the protein, both at technical and interpretational levels.
    Frontiers in Oncology 05/2013; 3:129. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2013.00129