The Influence of combat and interpersonal trauma on PTSD, depression, and alcohol misuse in U.S. Gulf War and OEF/OIF women veterans
ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the impact of combat and interpersonal trauma exposure in a sample of 115 U.S. women veterans from Gulf War I and the Iraq and Afghanistan wars on 3 postdeployment trauma-related mental health outcomes: posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PSS), depressive symptom severity (DSS), and alcohol misuse. Patients presenting for healthcare services at a Veterans Affairs postdeployment health specialty clinic completed screening questionnaires that assessed combat exposure, lifetime interpersonal trauma history of childhood neglect, physical, or sexual abuse, and adult sexual and physical assault. In a regression model, combat exposure was the only significant independent variable associated with PSS, DSS, and alcohol misuse (β = .42, .27 and B = 1.58, respectively) even after adding lifetime interpersonal assault exposure to the model. Results highlight the negative effects of combat exposure on treatment-seeking women veterans' postdeployment mental health. Incorporating combat exposure into routine screening procedures for Gulf War and Iraq and Afghanistan war women veterans can aid in mental health treatment planning.
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- "Stein et al. (2012) "
ABSTRACT: Recent research has provided compelling evidence of mental health problems in military spouses and children, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), related to the war-zone deployments, combat exposures, and post-deployment mental health symptoms experienced by military service members in the family. One obstacle to further research and federal programs targeting the psychological health of military family members has been the lack of a clear, compelling, and testable model to explain how war-zone events can result in psychological trauma in military spouses and children. In this article, we propose a possible mechanism for deployment-related psychological trauma in military spouses and children based on the concept of moral injury, a model that has been developed to better understand how service members and veterans may develop PTSD and other serious mental and behavioral problems in the wake of war-zone events that inflict damage to moral belief systems rather by threatening personal life and safety. After describing means of adapting the moral injury model to family systems, we discuss the clinical implications of moral injury, and describe a model for its psychological treatment.Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 07/2013; 16(4). DOI:10.1007/s10567-013-0146-y · 4.75 Impact Factor
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- "Recent findings from female OEF/OIF samples and from larger all-female samples examining both PTSD and MST together have yielded a different pattern of results. In primarily OEF/OIF samples, MST has not been associated with substance misuse (Hassija, Jakupcak, Maguen, & Shipherd, 2012; Scott et al., 2013), with one study finding an association between combat and substance misuse (Hassija et al., 2012), and one study finding an association between the emotional numbing symptoms of PTSD and hazardous drinking (Scott et al., 2013). In another study conducted among a broad sample of women veterans under the age of 50, Booth, Mengeling, Torner, and Sadler (2011) found that post-military sexual assault and depression predicted substance misuse but not PTSD or MST. "
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding alcohol use and its correlates in women veterans. An understanding of these variables is of utility to providers in primary care at Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals, who are among the first to identify and intervene for problem drinking. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe and explore the associations between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, experience of military sexual trauma (MST), expectancies for alcohol use, and coping skills in predicting drinking behavior. DESIGN: Each month all women veterans attending appointments in primary care were mailed a letter alerting them to the study. Women then received a call asking them to participate, and many were directly recruited at their primary care appointment. Participants then completed a survey of current alcohol use and related variables in a private room. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 93 women veterans seeking care at VA. MAIN MEASURES: Measures included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, a modified version of the VA MST screen, the Davidson Trauma Scale; the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Brief Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol Questionnaire. KEY RESULTS: Positive expectancies and evaluations emerged as significant correlates of AUDIT scores, while PTSD symptoms were not related to AUDIT scores. A hierarchical regression revealed a significant positive interaction between avoidance coping and positive evaluations. Depression, positive evaluations and avoidance coping were significant independent predictors of AUDIT scores in the final model, but MST was not. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the importance of considering of the function of alcohol use when delivering clinical interventions and the need for further research on the association between MST and drinking in women veterans.Addictive behaviors 02/2013; 39(2). DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.02.006 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess pain and anxiety during bone marrow aspiration/biopsy (BMA) among patients versus health-care professionals (HCPs). 235 adult hematologic patients undergoing BMA were included. BMA was performed by 16 physicians aided by nine registered nurses (RNs). Questionnaires were used to obtain patients and HCPs ratings of patients' pain and anxiety during BMA. Patterns of ratings for pain and anxiety among patients HCPs were estimated with proportions of agreement P(A), Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ), and single-measure intra-class correlation (ICC). We also explored if associations of ratings were influenced by age, sex, type and duration of BMA. The P(A) for occurrence of rated pain during BMA was 73% between patients and RNs, and 70% between patients and physicians, the corresponding κ was graded as fair (0.37 and 0.33). Agreement between patients and HCPs regarding intensity of pain was moderate (ICC=0.44 and 0.42). Severe pain (VAS>54) was identified by RNs and physicians in 34% and 35% of cases, respectively. Anxiety about BMA outcome and needle insertion was underestimated by HCPs. P(A) between patients and RNs and patients and physicians regarding anxiety ranged from 53% to 59%. The corresponding κ was slight to fair (0.10-0.21). ICC showed poor agreement between patients and HCPs regarding intensity of anxiety (0.13-0.36). We found a better congruence between patients and HCPs in pain ratings than in anxiety ratings, where the agreement was low. RNs and physicians underestimated severe pain as well as anxiety about BMA outcome and needle insertion.European journal of oncology nursing: the official journal of European Oncology Nursing Society 02/2012; 16(3):323-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ejon.2011.07.009 · 1.43 Impact Factor