Background: Aging is associated with a decline in skeletal muscle size. Muscle is critical both for mobility and glucose disposal. While resistance exercise (RE) increases muscle mass and function in the elderly, its role in improving glucose utilization is less clear. Aims: To investigate whether muscle size was linked with insulin sensitivity (IS) in elders with diabetes following RE and if regional muscle glucose uptake differed from systemic glucose utilization. Method: Seven (68.4±5.9 yrs) adults with diabetes participated. After 16 weeks of RE, within 24 hours (post 1) and after 1 week of no exercise (post 2), lean tissue cross-sectional area (CSA) and IS via glucose infusion rate (GIR) were assessed along with a standardized FDG-PET uptake value (SUV). Results: CSA increased between pretest (108.5±35.3 cm2) and post 1 (116.8±40.9 cm2), p=0.02 and did not differ at post 2 (116.0±39.3 cm2). GIR during the 40 mU/m2/min insulin clamp differed between pretest (22.0±15.8 mg/kg/min) and post 1 (67.9±72.8 mg/kg/min), and post 1 and post 2 (25.0±27.2 mg/kg/min), but not between pretest and post 2. GIR results during the 200 mU/ m2/min insulin clamps also differed between pretest and post 1, and post 1 and post 2 but not between pretest and post 2. FDG-SUV increased between pretest (1.1±0.2) and post 1 (1.4±0.3), and remained stable between post 1 and post 2 (1.4±0.4). Conclusion: RE that increased muscle size and FDG-SUV improved IS 24 hours but not 1 week after exercise training.
"In addition, increasing muscle strength is generally deemed as an important consideration for training programs with the purpose of improving general health, physical fitness, and performance (Chaves et al., 2013). A considerable amount of research has analyzed the relationship between glycemic control and physical exercise (Marcus et al., 2013). For instance, D'Hooge et al. (2011) examined the effects of combined exercise training on metabolic control, physical fitness, and quality of life in adolescents with T1D. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Six men and six women (24.4 ± 6.4 years) who had been diagnosed with T1D for 7.3 ± 6.8 years volunteered for the study. Three RT sessions were repeated with the same experimental approach with randomized load percentages. Blood glucose measurements were performed at rest, after warm-up, immediately after the last set of each exercise, and 10, 20, and 30 minutes after the exercise session. Significant decreases from rest for blood glucose concentration in each intensity vs. post warm-up, immediately post exercise session, and 10, 20 and 30 minutes after total training session were observed. Effect size (ES) results for the 60 and 80% of 1RM intensities demonstrated large magnitudes. The three intensities investigated promoted a reduction in blood glucose levels and therefore can be recommended for diabetic patients. In addition, the moderate and high intensities appear to lower blood glucose levels to a greater extent than the low intensity.
Research in Sports Medicine An International Journal 01/2014; 22(1):75-87. DOI:10.1080/15438627.2013.852096 · 1.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This non-exhaustive, mini review reports on the application of eccentric exercise in various rehabilitation populations. The two defining properties of eccentric muscle contractions, a potential for high muscle force production at an energy cost that is uniquely low, are revisited and formatted as exercise countermeasures to muscle atrophy, weakness and deficits in physical function. Following a dual phase implementation, eccentric exercise that induces rehabilitation benefits without muscle damage, thereby making it both safe and feasible in rehabilitation, is described. Clinical considerations, algorithms of exercise progression and suggested modes of eccentric exercise are presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscle's structural composition is an important factor underlying muscle strength and physical function in older adults. There is an increasing amount of research to support the clear disassociation between the loss of muscle lean tissue mass and strength with aging. This disassociation implies that factors in addition to lean muscle mass are responsible for the decreases in strength and function seen with aging. Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is a significant predictor of both muscle function and mobility function in older adults and across a wide variety of comorbid conditions such as stroke, spinal cord injury, diabetes, and COPD. IMAT is also implicated in metabolic dysfunction such as insulin resistance. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a review of the implications of increased IMAT levels in metabolic, muscle, and mobility function. Potential treatment options to mitigate increasing levels of IMAT will also be discussed.
International Journal of Endocrinology 01/2014; 2014(10):309570. DOI:10.1155/2014/309570 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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