Salivary antioxidants and oral health in children with autism

Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Children Dentistry, A.B Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
Archives of oral biology (Impact Factor: 1.74). 04/2012; 57(8):1116-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2012.03.006
Source: PubMed


Individuals with autism vary widely in abilities, intelligence, and behaviours. Autistic children have preferences for soft and sweetened food making them susceptible to caries. A wide spectrum of medical and behavioural symptoms is exhibited by children with autism, which makes routine dental care very difficult in them. Mental retardation is evident in approximately 70% of individuals with autism and most psychiatric disorders including autism are associated with increased oxidative stress.
To evaluate the oral health status of children with autism and to determine the salivary pH and total salivary antioxidant concentration (TAC).
101 subjects with autism between age group of 6 and 12 year were part of the study and 50 normal healthy siblings of same age group were taken as control group. Oral health status was analysed using oral hygiene index-simplified and dentition status index. The salivary total anti-oxidant level was estimated using phosphomolybdic acid using spectrophotometric method and the salivary pH using the pH indicating paper. The results were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test.
A statistically very highly significant difference was seen in the mean oral hygiene index scores (autistic group--1.2 and control group--1, P<0.001) and the mean salivary total antioxidant concentration (autistic group--5.7 μg/ml and control group--38 μg/ml, P<0.001). No statistical significant difference was observed in the dental caries status and the salivary pH of autistic group and the control group.
Similar dental caries status was observed in children with autism and their healthy normal siblings. Oral hygiene was poor in children with autism whereas the Salivary TAC was significantly reduced in autistic children.

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Available from: Nijo Jose, Dec 11, 2014
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    • "In other words, whether the inability of the patient to engage in the environment leads to sensory processing disorders or vice versa remains to be determined. Most importantly, the dental professional during examination should bear in mind that autistic individuals exhibit wide variation in abilities, intelligence, and performance (11). Due to the multifaceted symptomatology of the autistic disorder, practitioners may need to target their therapeutic approach to the unique characteristics of each presenting child. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: This article reviews the present literature on the issues encountered while coping with children with autistic spectrum disorder from the dental perspective. The autistic patient profile and external factors affecting the oral health status of this patient population are discussed upon the existing body of evidence. Material and Methods: The MEDLINE database was searched using the terms ‘Autistic Disorder’, ‘Behaviour Control/methods’, ‘Child’, ‘Dental care for disabled’, ‘Education’, ‘Oral Health’, and ‘Pediatric Dentistry’ to locate related articles published up to January 2013. Results: Most of the relevant studies indicate poor oral hygiene whereas they are inconclusive regarding the caries incidence in autistic individuals. Undergraduate dental education appears to determine the competence of dental professionals to treat developmentally disabled children and account partly for compromised access to dental care. Dental management of an autistic child requires in-depth understanding of the background of the autism and available behavioural guidance theories. The dental professional should be flexible to modify the treatment approach according to the individual patient needs. Key words:Autism spectrum disorder, dental management, children.
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    ABSTRACT: Declarative Title Dental professionals caring for patients with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will need to provide oral health care based on a family-centered approach that involves a comprehensive understanding of parental concerns and preferences, as well as the unique medical management, behaviors, and needs of the individual patient. Background With the rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), oral health providers will find themselves increasingly likely to care for these patients in their daily practice. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive update on the medical and oral health management of patients with autism spectrum disorders. Methods The authors conducted a literature review by searching for relevant articles written in English in the PubMed database pertaining to the medical and oral health management of autism, including caries status, preventive, behavioral, trauma, and restorative considerations. Conclusions A detailed family centered approach based on parental preferences and concerns, the patient’s challenging behaviors, and related comorbidities can serve to improve the treatment planning and oral health management of dental patients with ASD
    Journal of Evidence Based Dental Practice 06/2014; 14. DOI:10.1016/j.jebdp.2014.03.002
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