Risk Factors for Moderate and Severe Microbial Keratitis in Daily Wear Contact Lens Users
ABSTRACT To establish risk factors for moderate and severe microbial keratitis among daily contact lens (CL) wearers in Australia.
A prospective, 12-month, population-based, case-control study.
New cases of moderate and severe microbial keratitis in daily wear CL users presenting in Australia over a 12-month period were identified through surveillance of all ophthalmic practitioners. Case detection was augmented by record audits at major ophthalmic centers. Controls were users of daily wear CLs in the community identified using a national telephone survey.
Cases and controls were interviewed by telephone to determine subject demographics and CL wear history. Multiple binary logistic regression was used to determine independent risk factors and univariate population attributable risk percentage (PAR%) was estimated for each risk factor.
Independent risk factors, relative risk (with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]), and PAR%.
There were 90 eligible moderate and severe cases related to daily wear of CLs reported during the study period. We identified 1090 community controls using daily wear CLs. Independent risk factors for moderate and severe keratitis while adjusting for age, gender, and lens material type included poor storage case hygiene 6.4× (95% CI, 1.9-21.8; PAR, 49%), infrequent storage case replacement 5.4× (95% CI, 1.5-18.9; PAR, 27%), solution type 7.2× (95% CI, 2.3-22.5; PAR, 35%), occasional overnight lens use (<1 night per week) 6.5× (95% CI, 1.3-31.7; PAR, 23%), high socioeconomic status 4.1× (95% CI, 1.2-14.4; PAR, 31%), and smoking 3.7× (95% CI, 1.1-12.8; PAR, 31%).
Moderate and severe microbial keratitis associated with daily use of CLs was independently associated with factors likely to cause contamination of CL storage cases (frequency of storage case replacement, hygiene, and solution type). Other factors included occasional overnight use of CLs, smoking, and socioeconomic class. Disease load may be considerably reduced by attention to modifiable risk factors related to CL storage case practice.
SourceAvailable from: Craig A. Woods[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the clinical performance of DAILIES TOTAL1 (DT1), Clariti 1Day (C1D), and 1-DAY ACUVUE TruEye (AVTE) silicone hydrogel daily disposable contact lenses (SiHy DDCLs). Eligible participants, subdivided into asymptomatic and symptomatic groups, wore each SiHy DDCLs for three consecutive days. Each participant attended three visits (on day 1 at 0 hours; on days 1 and 3 after 8 hours of wear) per lens type. The order of lens wear was randomized, with at least 1 day washout between lenses. Lens-related performance was evaluated by assessing lens surface deposits, wettability, pre-lens noninvasive tear breakup time, lens movement, and centration; ocular response assessments included conjunctival redness, corneal staining, and conjunctival staining and indentation. Fifty-one asymptomatic and 53 symptomatic participants completed the study. For all visits, the mean noninvasive tear breakup time was about 1 second longer with DT1 than with C1D and AVTE (p < 0.01). Overall, the wettability of all three lenses was good; however, DT1 was graded marginally better than the other lenses (both p < 0.01). On day 3, eyes wearing AVTE had significantly more dehydration-induced corneal staining compared with DT1 (AVTE, 24%; DT1, 11%; p < 0.01). After 8 hours, conjunctival staining was different between lenses (greatest with C1D and least with DT1; all p < 0.01). Conjunctival indentation was more prevalent with the C1D lenses (n = 70) compared with DT1 (n = 1; p < 0.01) and AVTE (n = 11; p < 0.01). There were no differences between asymptomatic and symptomatic lens wearers for any of the clinical parameters (all p > 0.05). Each of the three SiHy DDCLs performed well. Noninvasive tear breakup time was longest and wettability was greater with DT1. C1D had the most conjunctival staining conjunctival indentation. There was no difference between asymptomatic and symptomatic wearers with regard to ocular response and contact lens-related parameters. These results suggest that SiHy DDCLs may be an excellent contact lens modality for the symptomatic patient.Optometry and vision science: official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 01/2015; 92(3). DOI:10.1097/OPX.0000000000000514 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the association between the levels of lens case contamination and lens wearers' hygiene behaviors. Contact lens wearers were surveyed for information on wearer demographics and contact lens hygiene behavior. Microbial analysis of lens cases was performed. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with contact lens storage case contamination. One hundred nineteen contact lens wearers responded. The mean (±SD) age of the participant was 32 (±1) years (range, 18 to 69 years). Seventy percent of the participants were female. Sixty-six percent of lens cases were contaminated (median, 25; range, 0 to 10 colony-forming units [CFUs]). In the multivariate analysis, washing hands with soap and water (1.8 ± 2.0 log10 CFU/case) rather than just water or no washing was associated with lower levels of lens case contamination (2.4 ± 2.1 log10 CFU/case; p = 0.005). Lens cases received wet had higher levels of contamination than dry cases (1.5 ± 1.5 vs. 2.4 ± 2.5 log10 CFU/case; p = 0.015). Mismatching lens case and disinfecting solution was a risk factor for lens case contamination (p = 0.019). Lens wearers who had more than 2 years of wearing experience had higher levels of contamination than those who had less than 2 years of wearing experience (2.1 ± 2.1 vs. 1.1 ± 1.5 log10 CFU/case; p = 0.04). Major factors that can reduce lens case contamination were washing hands with soap and water, air-drying lens cases, and matching of the disinfecting solution with lens case (i.e., from the same manufacturer). This information is beneficial when advising lens wearers in clinical practice.Optometry and Vision Science 02/2015; 92(2):167-174. DOI:10.1097/OPX.0000000000000477 · 2.04 Impact Factor
Article: Biofilms in infections of the eye.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The ability to form biofilms in a variety of environments is a common trait of bacteria, and may represent one of the earliest defenses against predation. Biofilms are multicellular communities usually held together by a polymeric matrix, ranging from capsular material to cell lysate. In a structure that imposes diffusion limits, environmental microgradients arise to which individual bacteria adapt their physiologies, resulting in the gamut of physiological diversity. Additionally, the proximity of cells within the biofilm creates the opportunity for coordinated behaviors through cell-cell communication using diffusible signals, the most well documented being quorum sensing. Biofilms form on abiotic or biotic surfaces, and because of that are associated with a large proportion of human infections. Biofilm formation imposes a limitation on the uses and design of ocular devices, such as intraocular lenses, posterior contact lenses, scleral buckles, conjunctival plugs, lacrimal intubation devices and orbital implants. In the absence of abiotic materials, biofilms have been observed on the capsule, and in the corneal stroma. As the evidence for the involvement of microbial biofilms in many ocular infections has become compelling, developing new strategies to prevent their formation or to eradicate them at the site of infection, has become a priority.01/2015; 4(1):111-36. DOI:10.3390/pathogens4010111